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ment for his royal highness the who had no time to prepare myself king's fon, prince Charles : Dever for it. The grief with which I theless, his majesty the king of Po am juftly oppressed cannot make land has hitherto refused to liften me forget a kingdom which was so to any overtures for an accommo- dear to the kings my father and dation, or for making fatisfa&tion grandfather, or those faithful ferfor the many complaints of the em vants who gave them so many prefs : not to mention the treaty of proofs of a fincere attachment. perpetual peace established between i feel the irreparable loss you have Russia and the republic of Poland, suffered ; and it would give me the and which has been infringed by Po- highest consolation to be able to land, in many points, her impe- mitigate it. rial majefty complains, first, that, I propose to make the republic notwithstanding the requisition made an offer of my service, and of all by her ambassador, the king has not the afliftance that is in my power given her satisfaction with regard to give her, if, by conferring the to the irregular conduct of the four crown on me, he will entrust me ministers, who figned a memorial with the reins of government : and highly offenfive to the court of Ruf I have all reason to hope, that if fia and its sovereign. Secondly, the Polish nation be disposed to give that the king has not yet acknow. me this mark of their affection and ledged the lawful duke of Cour- confidence, all the neighbouring land. Thirdly, that the laws and powers will chearfully acquiesce in liberties of Poland are oppressed, as it. You gave the last king, my well as the friends of Ruffia, who father, so many proofs of yoor are kept from all employments, attachment, that I flatter myself and from all favours, because they you will fhew the fame affe&tion to support liberty and the laws; and me: and I am very sensible how who, on that very account, merit much it is in your power to conthe protection of Russia ; who, being tribute to procure me the fatisfacthe

guarantee of the rights of the tion I aspire after, of governing an republic, moft not fuffer any change illuftrious nation, which will ever in its constitution, bat must be its be distinguished by its fidelity and firmes support, &c. &c.**

attachment to their kings. Be perfuaded that my gratitude shall be

in proportion to the greatness of A circular letter, sent by the Elečtor the fervice done me: of this you

of Saxony to all the nobles of Po- can have no doubt, if you do me * Land.

the justice to believe me animated

with the fame spirit as my anSIR,

cestors. I pray God to direct the YESTERDAY it pleased the deliberations of the republic, and

Almighty zo affiliat me with a to keep you, Sir, in his holy problow, no less tersible than onex teation. I am, your affectionate pected. He has taken to himself friend, the king my father, by a death

FREDERICK, taly to him, but very cruel for me,

CHA

CHARACTERS.

WE conceived, that we could not able enough, that the coffee-house

more agreeably open this part of which this species of men frequent, our depgn, than by laying before the stands within the precincts of the reader the present state of a people, ancient Poikile. Some of their nie w oppreljed by slavery and funk in priests have the reputation of being the großejt ignorance, who were once learned men, and excellent preach, the most famous in the world for va. ers : the most admired of them, in lour and genius, for arts and learning. our time, was the abbot of St, The opportunity Mr. Stuart had, duq Cyrianée, a convent on Mount Hy, ring his long residence at Athens, of mettus , he is a man of great

read. becoming intimately acquainted with ing, and delivers himself with bethe genius and disposition of that peo- coming gesture, and a pleasing ple, and his well known abilities to fluency of elocution. Here are discern and to describe, will naturally two or three persons who practise give the folloquing artick all possible painting ; but whatever genius weight.

we may be tempted to allow them,

they have indeed very little science; Some account of the modern, Athenians. they seem never to have heard of From Stuart's antiquities of Athens. anatomy, or of the effect of light

and shade; though they still reHE Athenians have perhaps tain some imperfect notions of

to this day more vivacity, perspective and of proportion. more genius, and a politer address, The Athenians are great lovers of than any other people in the Tur- music, and generally play on an kih dominions. Oppressed as inftrument, which they call a Lyra, they are at present, they always though it is not made like the anoppose, with great courage and cient lyre, but rather like a guitar, wonderful fagacity, every addition or mandola. This they accomto their burden, which an avari- pany with the yoice, and very frecious or. cruel governor may at. quently with extempore verses, tempt to lay on them, During which they have a ready faculty at our stay, they, by their intrigues composing. drove away three of their gover There is great fprigheliness and nors, for extortion and mal-admis expresion in the countenances of niftration ; two of whom were im, both sexes, and their persons are prisoned, and reduced to the great. well proportioned. The men have eft diftrefs. They want not for a due mixture of strength and agi artful speakers and busy politicians, lity, without the least appearance so far as relates to the affairs of of heaviness. The women have a their own city; and it is remark- peculiar elegance of form and of VOL. VI.

B

manner i

TH

manner; they excel in embroidery ciently, called the Acropolis ; and and all kinds of needle-work. the Azáp Agá is an officer who com.

The air of Attica is extremely mands a few foldiers in that for. healthy.

tress. The articles of commerce which The inhabitants of Athens are this country produces, are chiefly between nine and ten thousand, corn, oil, honey, wax, rosin, some about four fifths of whom are filk, cheese, and a sort of acorns, Christians. This city is an Arcalled velanede by the Italians and chiepiscopal fee, and the archbithe French, but written Banevitus shop maintains a considerable auby the Greeks: these acorns are thority among the Christians, which used by the dyers and leather- he usually strengthens by keeping dressers. The principal manufac on good terms with the Turks in tures are soap and leather. Of office. He holds a kind of tributhese commodities, the honey, nal, at which the Christians fresoap, cheese, and leather, and part quently agree to decide their difof the oil, are sent to Conftanti- ferences, without the intervention nople; the others are chiefly bought of the Turkish magistrate. by the French, of which nation they reckon that seven or eight fhips are freighted here every year. Memoirs of the late Dr. BERKELEY,

The Turkish governor of Athens bishop of Cloyne. is called Vaivode. He is either changed or renewed in his office George Berkeley was the son of

, of The Athenians say, he brings the small living, but at the same time cranes with him, for these birds remarkable for his learning and likewise make their first appear. piety; he therefore gave his fon ance here about that time; they the best education his circumstances breed, and when their young have would admit of; and, when fitted acquired sufficient strength, which for the university, taxed his little is some time in August, they all fortune, in order to send him to fly away together, and are seen Trinity college, Dublin. no more till the March following. Here he soon began to be looked

Besides the Vaiwode, there is a upon, as the greatest genius, or Cadée, or chief man of the law. the greatest dunce, in the whole His business is to administer justice, university; those who were but to terminate the disputes which fightly acquainted with him, took arise between man and man, and him for a fool; but those who to punith-offenders. There is also shared his most intimate friendship, a Mudeereese Efendi, who prefides looked upon him as a prodigy of over the religious affairs of the learning and good-nature. WhenMohammedams here ; and those, ever he appeared abroad, which who are designed to officiate in the was but feldom, he was surroundmoschéas, are by him instructed in ed by a crowd of the idle or the the Mohammedan ritual. The facetious, who followed him, not Disdár Agá is the governor of the to be improved, but to laugh. Of fortress of Athens, which was an this he frequently complained, but

there

there was no redress; the more he amphitheatre erected for that pur: fretted, he became only the more pose, and great numbers of the no

ridiculous. An action of his, bility and gentry are present upon however, foon made him more

the occasion, This examination truly ridiculous than before : cu he passed with the utmost applause, riosity leading him one day to see and was made a fellow, the only an execution, he returned home reward of learning that kingdom pensive and melancholy, and could has to bestow. not forbear reflecting on what he Metaphysical ftudies are genehad seen. He desired to know rally the amusement of the indolent what were the pains and symptoms and the inquisitive; his business as a malefactor felt upon such an oc a fellow, allowed him sufficient cafion, and communicated to his leisure, and his genius prompted chum the cause of his strange cu

him to scrutinize into every abriofity ; in short, he resolved to ftrufe subject. He soon, therefore, tuck himself up for a trial ; at the was regarded as one of the best same time defiring his companion metaphysicians in Europe ; his loto take him down at a fignal agreed gic was looked upon

rather as the upon.

work of a man killed in metaphyThe companion, whose name fics, than in the dialect of the was Contarine, was to try the schools ; his treatise upon matter, fame experiment himself imme was also thought to be the most diately after. Berkeley was accord- ingenious paradox that ever ainused ingly tied up to the cieling, and learned leisure; and many were the the chair taken from under his answers made to it by the literati feet; but soon losing the use of of Earope. his senses, his companion, it seems,

His fame as a scholar, but more waited a little too long for the fig- his conversation as a man of wit nal agreed upon, and our enquirer and good-nature, foon procured had like to have been hanged in him the friendship and esteem of good earnest ; for as soon as he every person of fortune and underwas taken down, he fell, senseless ftanding ;'among the rest, Swift, and motionless, upon the floor. that lover, yet derider, of human After some trouble, however, he nature, became one of the most was brought to himself; and ob- intimate, and it was by his recomferving his band, “ Bless my heart, mendation that he was introduced Contarine, says he, you have quite to the earl of Peterborough, who rumpled my band.” When it made him his chaplain, and took came to Contarine's turn to go up, him, as his companion, on a tour he quickly evaded the proposal; through Europe. the other's danger had quite abated Some time after his return, he

was promoted to a deanery, in Still, however, Berkeley pro- which situation he wrote his Minute ceeded in his ftudies with unabated Philosopher, one of the most eleardour. A fellowship in that col- gant and genteel defences of that lege is attained by superior learning religion which he was born to vinonly; the candidates are examined dicate, both by his virtues and his in the most public manner, in an ingenuity. It was at this time

also,

his curiosity.

BZ

manner; they excel in embroidery ciently called the Acropolis ; and and all kinds of needle-work. the Azáp Agá is an officer who com

The air of Attica is extremely mands a few soldiers in that for. healthy.

tress. The articles of commerce which

The inhabitants of Athens are this country produces, are chiefly between nine and ten thousand, corn, oil, honey, wax, rosin, some about four fifths of whom are filk, cheese, and a sort of acorns, Christians. This city is an Arcalled velanede by the Italians and chiepiscopal fee, and the archbi. the French, but written Benavitns shop maintains a considerable auby the Greeks : these acorns are thority among the Christians, which used by the dyers and leather- he usually strengthens by keeping dressers. The principal manufac on good terms with the Turks in tures are soap and leather. Of office. He holds a kind of tributhese commodities, the honey, nal, at which the Christians fresoap, cheese, and leather, and part quently agree to decide their difof the oil, are sent to Conftanti- ferences, without the intervention nople; the others are chiefly bought of the Turkish magistrate. by the French, of which nation they reckon that seven or eight hips are freighted here every year. Memoirs of the late Dr. BERKELEY, The Turkish governor of Athens

bishop of Cloyne. is called Vaiwode. He is either changed or renewed in his office GEorge Berkeley was the son of every year, the beginning of March.

a clergyman in Ireland, of a The Athenians say, he brings the small living, but at the same time cranes with him, for these birds remarkable for his learning and likewise make their first appears piety; he therefore gave his son ance here about that time; they the beit education his circumstances breed, and when their young have would admit of; and, when fitted acquired sufficient strength, which for the university, taxed his little is some time in August, they all fortune, in order to send him to fly away together, and are seen Trinity college, Dublin. no more till the March following: Here he soon began to be looked

Besides the Vaivode, there is a upon, as the greatest genius, or Cadée, or chief man of the law. the greatest dunce, in the whole His business is to administer justice, university; those who were but to terminate the disputes which flightly acquainted with him, took arise between man and man, and him for a fool; but those who to punish offenders. There is also mared his most intimate friendship; a Mudeereese Effendi, who prefides looked upon him as a prodigy of over the religious affairs of the learning and good-nature. WhenMohammedams here ; and those, ever he appeared abroad, which who are designed to officiate in the was but feldom, he was surroundmoschéas, are by him instructed in ed by a crowd of the idle or the the Mohammedan ritual. The facetious, who followed him, not Disdár Agá is the governor of the to be improved, but to laugh. Of Cortress of Athens, which was an this he frequently complained, but

these

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