know not, as I never could find it I3 When the reason for fowing ap.

in the fanie manner, be made, in This difference in the soil of my times of scarcity, with carrots,

farm is on many accounts a great parfneps, potatoes, Jerusalem-ar- advantage; particularly, my wheat tichokes, and many other articles, does not all ripen at the same time; which might be raised at a trifling I have generally nearly got in that expence : the carrot-puddings and growing on my gravelly land, bethe potatoe-puddings, which are fore that on my clay is fit to cut; both frequently seen at the tables and I can besides plow in all weaof the great, have no particular thers, frost excepted. taste of the respective roots they But, not to digress too much, I are made of; and this would, I took it into my head that, with dare say, be the case with the proper care, I could breed for mybread.

felf, on my own land, as good It is for the interest of the com- feed-wheat as any I could buy, if munity, that the food of the poor not better; and I determined within should be as various as poffible: myself to make the experiment. whilst their chief food is bread Before I made this experiment, made of wheat-meal only, every I had reduced the quantity of seed time the crop of wheat fails, they I used on each acre, from four to are driven to the greatest distress'; three bushels, which was a great whereas, had they other ready and faving to me. I had ftill occafion cheap resources, this would never for above twenty quarters: be the case.

My first ftep was to select ten When wheat is dear, turneps or

acres of the best land I had'; five potatoes are frequently to be had at from the heavy, and as many from a reasonable rate; but if prejudice the light part of my farm : this steps forward, and forbids the use land was by nature rich and good; of them, of what avail is it? it lay on the gentle southern decli

vity of a hill, and required very Sept. 27, 1763.

little manure; it lay in two little

detached fields, at some distance one SL

from the other.

When I had prepared this land

by a winter and summer fallowing, Extract from a letter in the Museum in which time the clayey part was

Rufticum et Commerciale, on an plowed seven times, and the light improved method of breeding seed- land five times, I had both fields wheat.

fown with some of the beft wheat

I could procure; that for the SOME. part of my land differs heavy land I got from Hereford

greatly in its nature from the shire, the other from a particular other : rear half my farm is a stiff friend who holds a farm in Camdeep clay, what bottom it has I bridgeshire and in digging "my ditches, &c. the proached, I was mightily pleased the other half is'a bed of light with the appearance of my

two sandy loám, with a gravelly hard little plots; for they resembled the bottom,

bef-kept gardens, not a weed to



be seen, and the earth as fine as fowed in the common way with a garden-mould,

fling of the arm. On this occasion I did not brine It took up time ; fo I had two my seed, but had it put into a large, fowers to each plow. When the tub : some water was then poured plowman had drawn the first furon it, and I made a stout labourer, row, he then opened another, at with ftiff half-worn birchen- about ten feet distance from the broom, stir it very briskly about first in the land i and the seed was for near half an hour : this I ima- in the same manner thinly scattered gined would wash off the smut, if in this also: after this, he returnany, there happened to be: the ed to the first furrow. and drawing light seeds, which were very few, another close to it covered the were skimmed off.

feed; the same thing he did by the I let the wheat afterwards lie second furrow : he afterwards went three hours soaking, when my man two bouts without any feed being again stirred it briskly with the fown in the furrows; but the third same broom, and immediately pour-' bout, seed was thinly scattered, ed the water off.

as before, to form the second row Whilst yet wet, the seed was of corn in each bed : another bout sprinkled in the usual manner with was made to cover the seed when slaked lime, in order to prepare it the two beds were finished, the. for fowing:

middle of the interval being left My reason for not brining it * unplowed. was, that I thought it would bring In this manner both my

little it too forward; and I rather chofe fields were sown, in doublé rows to fow it early, which is, I know, with intervals about five or fix in general, a very good practice. feet wide betwixt the beds, and

In sowing this land, I, in some the rows about two feet asunder. measure, followed Mr. Tull's di The corn came up very well, rections that is, I fowed my and preserved a good wholesome wheat in

rows with large intervals, appearance all the winter, in the following manner,

Early in the spring, that is, in I had a furrow opened about a the month of February, I made a md from the hedge: in this fur- careful man fow the spaces betwixt row fome seed was by a careful the rows of corn on the heavy hand very thinly scattered, not land with wood-afhes, and on the

* It is not always necessary to brine wheat before fowing ; washing it well an. fwers the purpose of preserving it from smut, by removing the infectious powder which is apt to lodge at the rough gerın of the feed. Brining is most necessary at a late Towing, as it will then bring the coin forward ; but it is always belt omitted, unless the land is in fine tilth: if it has not been well plowed, the wheat, which had made a quick progress by the affistance of the faline particles it had imbibed in the brining, receives a fatal check, not finding the circumjacent earth in a condition to second the operations of the falt. When any good is expected from brining wheat, the feed Mould be left from twelve to twenty-four hours in the step, according to its quality, as it is harder or softer. If this is mot done, the brine will be of little more service than plain water. N.

K 4


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other plots 136 ANNUAL REGISTER light and with food there were mine was this year my heavy both foon washed 'in by the rain, lands I fowed with the feed pro and the erects were fpeedily to be duced by the light field, and my seen in the new affumed vigolar of light lands with that produced by the cropher and this vigour con. the heavy field.

As soon as I had got in this feAs loon as any weeds appeared, lect crop, I got the intervals in the intervals which were left an order for fowing with a second plowed at' seed-time were turned crop, in molt respects continuing up, and the paces betwixt the the praćtice of the year before I rows diligently hand-hoed : this had the like fuceefs, and might, hand-hoeing was several times re- perhaps, with equall advantage peated, to keep the crop quite have continued cropping the fields clear from weeds: the intervals every year in the fame manner: had also several other firrings; but, not to depend too much on but this work was“ chiefly done Mr. Tull,- my next crop was a full with a very light" plow without crop of barley on them, which either earth-board or coulter in fucceeded well, and I felected two the other little fietd,

Every thing came very well for- goodness, for my feed corn halWardand when the wheat began bandry, as I call ite si orfiet to foindle, I had the outsides of In this manner I have now for the rows well earthed-up with a several years part managed grow. plow, and the infides with a hand- ing my own feed; and, if any shoes the insides were done first. thing, my crops have since in an Ar harvest the fields made a creafed : but I have again reduced Mobler appearance, a fine well. the quantity from three to two broke earth striped with rows of bushels of feed, for each acre of healthy wheat.

my wheat-land in common that The cutting this wheat was very is, such as I low in the ordinary easily performed, it ftood fo rcady way : on fome of my rich Atrong to the reapers hands; and when it land, I don't afe above fix pecks, was housed and threshed, it yielded' and find it anfwer very well. me about four quarters on an acre, Several réafons, though I deal one with another, the first year, not much in them, may be afligned though I have fince had sometimes for the seed-wheat, I raife in the more, fometimes'a little less. above described manner, being so

My tenacres then yield about good. forcy quarters zland I had occasion In the first place, I fow it on for only about twenty-two to fow land that has not taited any dung my common wheat-lands : I there for some years, but is, in its own fore took only the firft and nature, rich, and good: 10. this prime part of

crop, getting practice I afcribe a great deal of the leaves very lightly threlhed its goodness. In the next place

, what remained, mader excellent as the corp does not #and too thick, bread-corn, silim gerisinds 100 its enjoys all the benefit it can rea I never faw finer seed wheat than ceive from the sun and air : by this

means Fiat

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tender stalks of the madder : this food cows are 9 For the YEAR 1763. A 137 I means it attains a perfect maturity, Extra& from a letter in the Museum

and is certainly improved both in Rufticum et Commerciale, on the bulk and quality,

different afes ta wohich the leaves The flight spring-drefling I giver of trees may be applied, as it, of foot or alhes, is of very great service : it warms the roots THE fubje& I propofe to write and brings the corn forward; it

on may appear to us in Engloolens the earth, and either itself land of little

consequence , yet i gives, nourishment to the plants, think it may be well worth our atpri at least, puts the earth in-a. tention when fet in a proper light. difpofition to afford it.

It is not my intention to treat, SonNot a little is to be attributed at this time, of leaves as organs

to the frequent hooing betwixt the that are neceffary to vegetation; rows and the stirrings of the inter- Įshall take them under my confivals; and I find one very particu- deration only when they become Jär and great advantage result from no longer necessary to the plants it, which is, that it is an excellent of which they are parts, s means of clearing my land of We fuffer our leaves to fall and weeds, for they no sooner attain à röt on the ground, without makpart of their growth, but they are ing, in general, any ufe of them; destroyed long before they feed. whereas were they carefully gatot lave very little more to say at thered before the fall, and dried, this time, except that I never which would be no'great expence, thresh the theaves that are to fup- they might, upon occafion, serve -ply me with, feed-corn, till juft as fodder for our cattle, as manure when I want to make use of it. I for our land; we might make hot have a notion, that the seed keeps beds of them ; they would, ferve ibetter in the covering nature has inftead of law-duft to preserve our given it, I mean the chaff, than it wines in dry vaults; and, if I am would do without it; and I am not mitaken, oak leaves might be pretty certain it Sprouts fooner in a very good substitute for the bark the ground, the chyk or bran of in tanning leather., the grain being preserved in a ten When we intend leaves as fod, derer and more yielding late, than der for cattle, they should bc gait would be were it exposed to the thered juft before the fall, and open airci l ,"

frequently turned and dried like

hay; after which, if they are OA. 4, 1763

bokept from moifture and wet, they "Si I grig futsat I may be with ease preferved through gana yon As Effex Farmer. the winter.

on. 070 wim, od very fond of the leaves yield abundance of milk of a good qnality, but it has a reddith colour, and the butter made of it, though very good; is yellow. They give allo to their cows the blades or leaves ofrithe faffron plant ; but these give the milk a disagreeable Lite av arra

15 9

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tafte N.

This will best answer in the the leaves of the trees rotting an reighbourhood of large woods and the ground in autumn; and when foreits, where there are plenty of I have gone there the winter, foltrees, and where of course the la- lowing, I have seen the poor theep. bour of gathering the leaves will and half-starved cows.crawling on, be but of little value, . Cows eat the commons, and almost perishing, these dried leayes with a good ap- for want of that nourishment which petite ; and there cannot be a bet- the leaves of the preceding autumn, ter, nor a cheaper fodder, to support if properly preserved, would have. ewes through the hard winter's afforded them. weather, Where a farmer, who But suppose even that the leaves has a right of commonage, breeds, should not in the winter be wante a large number of theep, he will as fodder, they will then serve as be glad of such a resource, in a an excellent manure, being lad hard winter, to save his, hay: if to rot in alternate beds with good. the sheep have not some dry fod- earth. In this manner, they make der, very many of them drop in a much better manure than either, the winter.

wheat or barley ftraw, as they I cannot say that I have had any abound more with vegetable fag. great experience of the use of raise in the earth a more uniform leaves as a fodder; yet I know and temperate fermentation ; and they may be fo applied, and are for this reason the effects they prowholesome food: I have dried. duce are more lafting. fome in small quantities, and given Another great advantage they them, for several weeks together, possess as a manure is, that you are both to cows and sheep; they eat sure of not stocking your land with them freely, and seemed to be weeds by the use of them : this every way in as good health as cannot be said of


of the comwhen they were fed with hay. mon kinds of dung. I know tpo,

so much for my little experi- and by experience, that they are ence; but in France the case is very good for making hot beds. otherwise : they annually consume I fall mention another, use to leaves there in large quantities as which the leaves of trees may be fodder for their cattle, and find applicd by the poor, if they are them thrive well with it.

firit properly dried and prepared; On the borders of the forest of I mean that they may serve initead. Orleans, as well as in many other of straw, flocks, or feathers, for provinces, this practice is highly beds, bolsters, and cushions: noapproved of, and stands generally thing can be cheaper for this use, recommended among the inferior and nothing can be wholesomer or farmers, who have no great plenty easier, I have had some experiof other more valable fodder. ence of it, and find that when

I would willingly. recommend leaves are applied to this use, this practice to some of our Eng- it is best for them to receive fome lish farmers: it is a great pity any wet in the drying, whether by rain thing Meuld be thrown away that or by wates thrown on them is in. can be of the least use'; and I have material : this makes them of a often, in a woody country, seen rougher contexture, and prevents



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