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as every additional stroke confti- where learning is attended with cutes a new character, and as eve. fuch honours and rewards: the ry distinct idea, and every mode of Literati are reverenced as men of relation is expressed by a distinct another species, they are the only character, we are not to wonder nobility known in China: be their that the Chinese characters thould birth never fo mean and low, they be fo extremely numerous. The become Mandarines of the highest number of our ideas is almost in- rank in proportion to the extent of finite : what wonder then that the their learning : on the other hand characters of the Chinese should be their birth never fo exalted, they amount to 80,000", many of which quickly finkinto poverty and obfcuAtand for entire fentences. Were rity, if they neglect those studies every word in our own language, which raised their fathers. It is a when it is used in a different sense; fond and groundless notion of some when it is compounded with ano late writerst, who ought to have ther word ; when it stands con known better, that there is a key nected with a new particle, ad to the Chinese characters, hidden jective or verb; when it is used from the common people, and rein a different case, number, gender, served as a secret in some few faor the like ; were it, I say, up- milies of the great. On the conon every such change in its fitu. trary, there is no nation in the ation, to be reckoned a new and world where the first honours of the distinct word; especially when all state lie fo open to the lowest of our obsolete words, with their fe- the people, and where there is less veral relations and dependencies, of hereditary and traditional greatare added to the account; the ness. All the state employments number of our words would not in China are the rewards of literafall much short of the Chinese. ry merit : and they are continuEighty thousand is the number of ally grasped by hands lifted up Chirete characters contained in from among the common people. their largest dictionaries ; we are But to return, if these charactold however that the most learned ters are difficult to the natives, on of their doctors seldom find it ne account of their number and comceffary to be masters of above half plexity ; their oral language is the number, and that a fourth part no less so to foreigners on account of these are sufficient for men to of the peculiarity of the sounds, express themselves on the common employed in it. ; P. Da Haldeg occasions of lifet. If the diffi- tells us, that the very make of the culty of mastering and retaining Chinefe mouthis is different from such a number of arbitrary marks, that of Europeans: '“ Their teeth greatly retards the progrefs of their « are placed in a different manner literature ; on the other hand the 46 from ours : the upper row Chinese have all possible induce- ' *** stands out, and sometimes falls ments to cultivate and pursue it. upon the under lip, or at least There is no part of the globe

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of the under row,

on the

* P. Du Halde, tom. 2 p. 226. + P. Du Halle, ubi upra. Hij.&v . vol.viij. $ Vol. 2. F. 104

| Mod, Unit.

« which

which is, notwithftanding, the on- a lover does on a ladder of cords, ly foundation of all the fine fyf- that he fixes to the window of his tem of polite gallantry.

mistress. A paffion, that wishes only to It is impossible that a perfect and content itfelf with the loss of what well-founded love should be hapit thinks the moft amiable in the py but in the peaceable poffeffion world;' a passion founded on in- of the object beloved, and that justice, fupported by deceit, and peace does not take from the sweetfollowed by crimes, remorse, nefs and vivacity of a passion fuch thame, and contempt ; -can it be as I have imagined. "If I would delightful to a virtuous heart ? amuse myself in writing romances, Yet this is the amiable equipage of I should not place the seat of true all unlawful engagements; we happiness in Arcadia, or on the find ourselves obliged to eradicate borders of Hymen. I am not such from the fout all the sentiments of a prude as to limit the most delihonour inseparable from a nobis cate tenderness to wishes ; I fould education, and to live in an eter- begin the romance by the marriage nal pursuit of that which we con- of two persons united by 'their demn obliged to have our plea- mind, talte, and inclination ; can fures impoisoned by remorse, and any thing be more happy than to to be reduced to the unhappy state anite their interest and their life? of renouncing virtue, yet not able The lover has the pleasure of givto content ourselves with vice. ing the last park of his esteem and

We cannot taste the fweets of confidence to his mistress; the, in perfe& love but in a well-fuited return, gives him the care of her marriage. Nothing so much dif- repose and liberty. Can they give tinguishes a little mind as to stop each other more dear of more renat words. What fignifies that der pledges ? And is it not natucustom (for which we fee very tal to wish to give to each other good reasons) of making the name incontcfible proofs of that tenof husband and wife ridiculous ? derness with which the foul is pe A husband signifies, in the gene- netrated ? ral interpretation, a jealous mor I know there are some people of tal, a quarrelsome tyrant, or a good false delicacy, who maintain that fort of fool, on whom we may im. the pleasures of love are only

due pose any thing ; a wife is a domef- to difficulties and dangers. They tiç dæmon, given to this poor fay, very 'wittily, the rose would man to deceive and torment him. not be the role without thorns, and The conduct of the generality of thousand other triftes of that na people sufficiently justifies these ture, which make fo little impreftwo characters. But I say, again, fion on my mind, that I am perWhat signify words ?. A well-re fuaded, was I a lover, the fear of gulated marriage is not like those hurting her I loved would make me of anibition and interest: it is two unhappy, if the poffeffion was aclovers who live together. Let a companied with dangers to her. priest

, pronounce certain words, The life of married lovers is very let an attorney sign certain papers; different, they pass it in a chain of I look upon these preparations as mutual obligations and marks of

benevolence,

benevolence, and have the pleasure retire to a person who feels bis for. of forming the entire happiness of row, and to say to himself in bez the object beloved ; in which arms, “ My happiness does not point I place perfect enjoyment. depend on the caprice of fortune;

The most trifling cares of eco. here is my assured afylum againi nomy become noble and delicate, all grief; your efteem makes me in. when they are heightened by sendible to the injuftice of a court, sentiments of tenderness. To fur or the ingratitude of a master; I nith a room is no longer furnish- feel a sort of pleasure in the loss ing a room, it is ornamenting the of my estate, as that misfortune place where I expect my lover ; to gives me new proofs of your virtue order a supper is not fimply giving and tenderness. How little de orders to a cook, it is amusing my firable is grandeur, to persons al. self in regaling him I love. These ready happy? We have no need of necessary occupations, regarded in flatterers or equipages; I reign.is this light by a lover, are pleasures your heart, and I poffefs in your infinitely more sensible and lively person all the delights of nature." than cards and public places, which In short, there is no situation of makes the happiness of the multi- which the melancholy may not be tude incapable of true pleasure. - softened by the company of the A paffion happy and contented, person we love. Even an illness is softens every movement of the foul, not without its pleasures, when we and gilds each object that we look are attended by one we love. I on.

should never have done, was I to To a happy lover (I mean one give you a detail of all the charms married to his mistress) if he has of an union in which we find, at any employment, the fatigues of once, all that flatters the fenfes in the camp, the embarrassments of the most delicate and most extend. court, every thing becomes agree-ed pleasure ; but I cannot conclude able when he can say to himself, without mentioning the satisfaction it is to serve her I love. If fortune of seeing each day increase the is favourable, (for that does not amiable pledges of our tender depend on merit) and gives success friendship, and the occupation of to his undertakings, all the advan- improving them according to their tages he receives are offerings due different lexes. We abandon our. to her charms, and he finds, in the selves to the tender inftin&t of da. fuccess of his ambition, pleasure ture refined by love. We admire much more lively and worthy a in the daughter the beauty of the noble mind, than that of raising mother, and respect in the fon the his fortune, or of being applauded appearances of understanding and by the public. He enjoys his glory, natural probity which we esteem in his rank, his riches, but as they the father. It is a pleasure of regard her he loves; and it is her which God himself (according to lover The hears praised, when he Moses) was sensible, when feeing gains the approbatiou of the par. whathe had done, he found it good liament, the praises of the army, propos of Moles, the or the favour of his prince. In first plan of happiness infinitely misfortune, it is his .confolation to surpassed all others; and I cannot

form

A propos

which is, notwithftanding, the on- a lover does on a ladder of cords, ly foundation of all the fine fyf- that he fixes to the window of his tem of polite gallantry.

mistress. A passion, that wishes only to It is impossible that a perfect and content itself with the loss of what well-founded love should be hapit thinks the most amiable in the py but in the peaceable posseffion world;'a passion founded on in- of the object beloved, and that justice, supported by deceit, and peace does not take from the fweetfollowed by crimes, remorse, nefs and vivacity of a passion fuch fhame, and contempt ;-can it be as I have imagined. "If I would delightful to a virtuous heart ? amuse myself in writing romances, Yet this is the amiable equipage of I should not place the seat of true all unlawful engagements, we happiness in Arcadia, or on the find ourselves obliged to eradicate borders of Hymen. I am not such from the soul all the sentiments of a prude as to limit the most delihonour inseparable from a noble cate tenderness to wishes ; I should education, and to live in an eter- begin the romance by the marriage nal pursuit of that which we con- of two persons united by their dema; obliged to have our plea- mind, taite, and inclination; can fures impoisoned by remorse, and any thing be more happy than to to be reduced to the unhappy state anite their interest and their life? of renouncing virtue, yet not able The lover has the pleasure of givto content ourselves with vice. ing the last park of his esteem and

We cannot taste the fweets of confidence to his mistress,; the, in perfect love but in a well-fuited return, gives him the care of her marriage. Nothing so much dif- repose and liberty. Can they give tinguishes a little mind as to stop each other more dear of more renat words. What fignifies that der pledges. And is it not natucustom (for which we fee very tal to wish to give to each other good reasons) of making the name inconteftible proofs of that tenof husband and wife ridiculous ? derness with which the soul is A husband signifies, in the gene- netrated ? ral interpretation, a jealous mor I know there are come people of tal, a quarrelsome tyrant, or a good false delicacy, who maintain that fort of fool, on whom we may im. the pleasures of love are only

due pose any thing ; a wife is a domes- to difficulties and dangers. They tiç dæmon, given to this poor fay, very 'wittily, the role would man to deceive and torment him. not be the role without thorns, and The conduct of the generality of a thousand other triftes of that no people sufficiently juftifies these ture, which make so little impreftwo characters. But I say, again, fion on my mind, that I am perWhat signify words ? A well-re fuaded, was I a lover, the fear of gulated marriage is not like those hurting her I loved would make me of ambition and interest: it is two unhappy, if the possession was acloyers who live together. Let a companied with dangers to her. priest pronounce certain words, The life of married lovers is very let an attorney sign certain papers; different, they pass it in a chain of I look upon these preparations as mutual obligations and marks of

benevolence,

pe

benevolence, and have the pleasure retire to a person who feels his forof forming the entire happiness of row, and to say to himself in her the object beloved ; in which arms, “ My happiness does not point I place perfect enjoyment. depend on the caprice of fortune;

The most trilling cares of eco. here is my assured asylum against nomy become noble and delicate, all grief; your esteem makes me inwhen they are heightened by fenfible to the injustice of a court, sentiments of tenderness. To fur or the ingratitude of a master; I nith a room is no longer furnish- feel a sort of pleasure in the loss ing a room, it is ornamenting the of my estate, as that misfortune place where I expect my lover; to gives me new proofs of your virtue order a supper is not simply giving and tenderness. How little deorders to a cook, it is amusing my, Grable is grandeur, to persons alself in regaling him I love. These ready happy? We have no need of necessary occupations, regarded in flatterers or equipages; I reign in this light by a lover, are pleasures your heart, and I poffefs in your infinitely more sensible and lively person all the delights of nature.". than cards and public places, which In short, there is no situation of makes the happiness of the multi, which the melancholy may not be tude incapable of true pleasure. softened by the company of the A paffion happy and contented, person we love. Even an illness is softens every movementofthe foul, not without its pleasures, when we and gilds each object that we look are attended by one we love. I on.

fhould never have done, was I to To a happy lover (I mean one give you a detail of all the charms married to his mistress) if he has of an union in which we find, at any employment, the fatigues of once, all that flatters the fenfes in the camp, the embarrassments of the most delicate and most extend court, everything becomes agree- ed pleasure ; but I cannot conclude able when he can say to himself, without mentioning the satisfaction it is to ferve her I love. If fortune of seeing each day increase the is favourable, (for that does not amiable pledges of our tender depend on merit) and gives success friendship, and the occupation of to his undertakings, all the advan- improving them according to their tages he receives are offerings due different lexes. We abandon our to her charms,' and he finds, in the felves to the tender instinct of na. fuccess of his ambition, pleasure ture refined by love. We admire much more lively and worthy à in the daughter the beauty of the, noble mind, than that of raising mother, and respect in the son the his fortune, or of being applauded appearances of understanding and by the public. He enjoys his glory, natural probity which we esteem in his rank, his riches, but as they the father. It is a pleasure of regard her he loves; and it is her which God himself. (according to lover the hears praised, when he Moses) was sensible, when seeing gains the approbation of the par. whathe had done, he found it good liament, the praises of the army, propos of Moses, the or the favour of his prince. In first plan of happiness infinitely misfortune, it is his consolation to furpassed all others, ;' and I cannot

form

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