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or even to undied cloth, and half linen and tallow, which we exmanufactured, which shall receive port from them into foreign countheir full perfection only in Eng- tries and our plantations to great land-who have no taxes on their advantage. It appears also from milk and potatoes, who live cheap- the estimates of the tunnage of er than any other manufacturers fhipping employed yearly in the in Europe, and who can conse- trade of Ireland, that the British quently underfell all the world. "tunnage is more than two thirds This will effe&ually prevent their of the whole, from which there running the wool' to France or arifes a profit to us of above threeHolland, whose manufactures therc- score thousand pounds a year in fore muft in a great measure fall; this article of freight only in the and it will as effectually reftore it Irish trade : and as their exporto the English. Even the profits tations as well as their freight are made by the Irish would eventual- principally carried on by English ly center here. But we seem ig- merchants, it may reasonably be norant of this in England; and computed that a profit of eighty this ignorance occasions the capi- thousand pounds a year arises to tal error of our conduct towards England. from their exports conthis people. It is fit therefore that sidered in this light. "Add to all it thould be explaified.

these advantages, the greatest perIt appears by the custom-house haps of all, that which arises from books that the imports of Ireland the nobility and people of estate from Great Britain alone; amount and employment who spend their to near five parts in eight of their incomes in England. And then it whole importation, and which con- will evidently appear, that if Englift chiefly of commodities worked land does not gain by Ireland alone, up to the height; and it will be half as much yearly as it does by found perhaps on examination; all the world beside, as many peothat they take off a much greater ple suppose; yet there is no counquantity of the several manu- try in Europe that brings so much factures of England, except oar profit to another, as Ireland docs woollen; than any other country to England. Before the Irish pain Europe. On the other hand, pifts were thoroughly reduced by thewoollen yarn and worsted which Cromwell, that kingdom was onwe receive from them; so far from ly a dead weight upon England : being a loss to the nation as most it had little or no trade, few or no importations are, when fully ma- manufa&tures, and a very small nufactured by us in England, will vent for English consumable comfell for two hundred thoufand modities. Poverty and the effects pounds a year more than the of wär supplied the place of luxu. prime coit, in foreign markets. ry; and the Irish gentlemen wer: In the same manner their linen not“ rich enough to be absentees. yarn, which we work up into It was then that maxim was retickens, tapes, girths, and other ceived into the English politics, nanufacturės, yield an annual pro- • that keeping Ireland poor was fit of an hundred thousand pounds; ' of great advantage to England;' to say nothing of the raw hides, and therefore it was necessary to

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fily have gained credit with im- be greatly benefited by it ; yet this partial people.” Introduction, p.53. does not content them.

This introduction is a curious On the other hand, the people and very learned treatise on the of England, considering the innatural history and antiquities of habitants of that island as a colony Ireland ; we could with, indeed, sent from hence to possess a coun the doctor had been a little fuller try that we had conquered, and in his account of Tanistry and the that it has coft us an immense fum Brehon law; we are however made of money and a deluge of blood to amends by a disputatiou of more re-establish them in their poftelconfequence to us certainly, as it lions, claim an absolute Sovereigntends to teach us (for the mutual ty over them, and to limit and diadyantage of both countries) to lay rect their commerce as we please: aside our prejudices against, and and as the woollen is the staple jealousies of Ireland, and gives manufacture of England, we prous the following fine lesson in poli- hibit their exportation, to every tics, that fair and equal dealing other part of the world, of any wool to all the parts of an empire, is the wrought or unwrought, and to true interest of the whole.

England every thing of that kind “ On the one hand, the people but wool and yarn. Thus, as cho' of Ireland, looking upon them the world was not wide enough for felves as free-born subjects, their us and them, and

thoʻ, we kingdom as distinct and inde- thought that every filling got by pendent, and, as never having the Irish was defrauding us of i been conquered, revolt against the because we assert that we have a prohibition of their woollen com right to limit and direct their trade, merce by, the English parlia- so in order to exercise that right ment; and as tho' no other com. their woollen branch was quite merce could employ them, and extinguished. Had it been limitwealth was to be derived to them ed indeed to cloths of a particular from no other perhaps because breadth and fineness, to such alone it is prohibited--they ran their as our rivals underfell us in, wool to the enenries of England ; there might have been fome good and by that means have enabled policy in this restraint: and if we them to undersell us, and to take ever mean to recover it out of the the market for the woollen trade in hands of the French and Dutch, it great

meafare out of our hands. must be by acting contrary to the Tho' we have given great encou- way in which we lost it. We lost ragement to the linen manufacture, it by driving the Irish to a better which should be considered as the market for their wool than Engstaple trade of the nation, and tho land, with too rigid an exertion if all their sheep-walks were to be of our authority over them, converted into tillage for, hemp by the high taxes and high livand fax, and all the labouring ing of our people and it is hands of the island were to be em- only to be recovered by admitployed in that manufacture, they ting the Irish to share with us would always find a market for it, in the profits--- which may be conand their mosher country would fined to ratteens, draps, kes fies,

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a space of about four hundred constitution, which the doctor comyears, from the earliest accounts pares to our parliament, to which of time, to the coming in of the however it does not seem to bear Milesians from Spain; through any other resemblance than as bethe several colonies of Parthalani- ing a national assembly; but whatans, Nemedians, Belgians, and ever it was it died with him, tho' Danonians. The second period, it left claims to be afterwards afwhich

may be called the Obscure, serted by the people. Cormac, a begins with the Spanish invafion, prince who began his reign A.D.254 and extends through a course of was a man of prodigious parts and a

thirteen hundred years, to the ar- bilities; he had loft aneye in battle, *** rival of St. Patrick who converted and being obliged to retire from go

The third or middle "vernment, in deference to the ideas age, which may be called the En- of the time, which permitted none lightened, begins with the plant- to reign who had a personal bleing of the gospel by that misfi- mish, he discovered to the world onary, and extends to the conquest the "errors of the Druid worship, by the English ; which contains a and, as our author thinks, paved space of seven hundred and forty the way to Christianity. years. Thelatter age, which may be In his fixth book opens what he called the Historical, may be com calls the Enlightened age, but puted from the reign of Henry the proves a very heavy road for the second, 'till its final settlement at the historian. We find the gospel had revolution by king William.'p.119. been before preached there, but it

His first book, which compre- was not till A. D. 432 that Palhends the first period, is wisely ladius was sent from Rome ; nor made very short. The second peri- was it till some years after that, by od, which he stiles the Obscure, takes the preaching and exemplary life up the four next books ; we here and wise conduct of St. Patrick, find a more regular force than was that Christianity gained much known in other countries for many ground. This and the seventh book ages after; at this period we find taking up the space of about 370 Pentarchy formed, destroyed, and years, contains little else than the re-establimed; but there seems al- fucceflion and genealogies of the ways to sublift one monarch, to kings and saints, and confequentwhich, till just before the arrival ly cannot be interesting : till the of English monarchs, the rest were year of our lord 797, the Irish his. fubordinate ; the then monarch, tory is little else than a continued Sometimes through weakness, some-' scene of domestic ftrife. The misetimes through inattention, does ry of the country about that time not assert his

superiority. Through was increased by continualinvasions a mist of barbarism and confusion,' from the Danes, who settled themthere is a glimmering of anintend- felves in most of the sea ports, and ed order and government, and were often possessed of the empire of there are not wanting very great the whole iħand; it was not till after

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cramp her trade and discourage her fame improvements had been made manufactures. Nor was this opi- in Yorkshire or any county in Eng. nion ill founded at the time it was land : and therefore though their formed. Experience had too fully people were more fully employed shewn our ancestors, that as long than they are, though their exports as the Popish or Irish intereft was were enlarged, and their gain from superior, the more powerful the other nations by a greater liberty natives were, and the greater dif- of trade were much more confiturbances were created to Eng- derable than it is, yet very little land; they either struggled to of this wealth would stay with throw off the English government, them, but it would as naturally or else to establish the popish reli. ftow to England as the river does gion. But though that kingdom "to the ocean. It is therefore our itill bears the name of Ireland, and interest to give the people of Irethe protestant inhabitants are called and full employment, to encouIrith, with old ideas annexed to rage their industry in every branch those names of opposition to the of trade, and not to stop any inlet English intereft, and though these through which their treasure may ideas are so strongly associated, come in, fince every acquifition or like ghosts and darkness, that most profit they can make will at laft of our countrymen find it difficult center amongit us. It is their into separate them, yet the fcene is 'terest not to extend their commerce quite changed from what it was to fuch manufactures or commowhen such a disadvantageous way dities, as will prejudice their moof thinking about Ireland took rise. ther country which protects and Almost all the lands of Ireland are defends them in the enjoyment of in poffefüon of the descendants of their property,' but to cultivate English protestants, linked in the the manufactures which lie open to

strongest manner, as well by civil them; and which at the fame that - and religions interest, as by in- it would give full employment to clinations, to the fortunes of Great all their people, and be a source of Britain.

wealth and comfort, would be a A computation was made about real advantage to their friends in thirty years ago, that the profit England. The importance of the - arising to us from all our planta- subject to both nations must be the tions and islands in America, ne- apology for this long digression : ver exceeded seventeen hundred and to those who read it with the thousand pounds a year : and at

fane intention with which all histhe same time it was thought, attory should be read, the apology will the lowest calculation, that we be sufficient." Introduction p. 32. gained from Ireland alone fourteen He divides the whole intended hundred thousand. From hence work into four periods, this volume it will follow, that the improve- contains the three firft: ments made in Ireland have had - Theinhabitants of this country, the fame effect on England, by em

Thould be considered in their hifploying her poor, bringing wealth tory under four different ages. into the nation, and increasing The first age, which may be the number of shipping, as if the called the Fabulous, comprehends

a space

a space of about four hundred constitution, which the doctor comyears, from the earliest accounts pares to our parliament, to which of time, to the coming in of the however it does not seem to bear Milesians from Spain; through any other resemblance than as bethe several colonies of Parthalani- ing a national assembly; but whatans, Nemedians, Belgians, and ever it was it died with him, tho' Danonians. The second period, it left claims to be afterwards afwhich may be called the Obscure, serted by the people. Cormac, a begins with the Spanish invasion, prince who began his reign A.D.254 and extends through a course of was a man of prodigious parts and a thirteen hundrel years, to the ar- bilities; he had loftaneye in battle, rival of St. Patrick who converted and being obliged to retire from gothe island. The third or middle 'vernment, in deference to the ideas age, which may be called the En- of the time, which permitted none lightened, begins with the plant- to reign who had a personal bleing of the gospel by that miffi- mish, he discovered to the world onary, and extends to the conquest the errors of the Druid worship, by the English ; which contains a and, as our author thinks, paved space of feven hundred and forty the way to Christianity. years. The latter age, which may be In his fixth book opens what he called the Historical, may be com calls the Enlightened age, but puted from the reign of Henry the proves a very heavy road for the second,'tillits final settlement átthe historian. We find the gospel had revolution by king William.'p.119. been before preached there, but it

His first book, which compre was not till A. D. 432 that Palhends the first period, is wisely ladius was fent from Rome ; nor made yery

fore. The second peri was it till some years after that, by od, which he stiles the Obscure, takes the preaching and exemplary life up the four next books; we here and wise conduct of St. Patrick, find a more regular force than was that Christianity gained much known in other countries for many ground. This and the seventh book ages after; at this period we find taking up the space of about 370 Pentarchy formed, destroyed, and years, contains little else than the re-established; but there seems al- fucceffion and genealogies of the ways to fubfift one monarch, to kings and faints, and confequentwhich, till just before the arrival "ly cannot be interesting : till the of English monarchs, the rest were year of our lord 797, the Irish hisfubordinate ; the then monarch, tory is little else than a continued sometimes through weakness, fome- scene of domestic ftrife. The misetimes through inattention, does sy of the country about that time not allert his superiority. Through was increased by continualinvasions a mist of barbarism and confusion, from the Danes, who settled themthere is a glimmering of anintend- felves in most of the sea ports, and ed order and government, and were often poffeffed of the empire of there are not wanting very great the whole iftand; it was not till after men. Ollam Fodla seems to have long sufferings that the Irish had great ideas, he lived about thought of equipping a fleet, and 4. M. 3236 he formed a sort of in the very first use of it

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