thing that thnt jam did not contain was strawberries. It was like the wooden nutmegs that were once said to have brou manufactured in Connecticut, where I live. I doubt the stury about wooden memegs, but until the pure food luw was unaotod there were sausages made that lind almost 110 snunnge ineut in them. And then there was the su-called embalmed beef that was alleged to havo boen Hupplied by some of the big packing houses to feed the soldiers in the Spanish War. I don't know whether Theodore Roosevelt, when he led the Rough Riders in Cuba back in 1898, ever ute any of that embalined beef, for our soldiers in that war had very little tv eut of any sort. But when he became President one of the incasures he got Congress to pass was the pure food law. There was, of course, great opposition from some food producers on the ground of bureaucracy and inturferonco with freedom of trade. But the law was passed and it has really boen almost in valuable to producers and merchants as it hias to consumers. It has not only provented many cases of food poisoning und swindling by sale of inforior products; but it has also greatly increasud the sulo of all sorts of canned goods and foods in packages. So long as there waM duuht of the purity and healthfulness of nucli foods poople hesitated to buy them. Now they are sold in imunense quantities, for every packuge of breakfast food, every can of vegetables and every bottle of pickile on the market is now subject to the superivsion of the Fedoral and Slate (iovernments. All foot products are required to be free froin adulteration, and the lubul on the cur or paokago inust tell the truth about the contents.

Another big step to protect the American home was taken three or four years ago when Congress passed and President Coolidge signed a law called the Corrosivo Poisons Aot. This not requires a wiirning label on various chemicals and uleaning Guide that are used to clean nearly overy home. One of these substances ia soda lyu thut is used to clean the kitchen sink. Every now and thoni a little ohild got hold of the can und swallowed some of its contents. The result was fearful injury, lusting sometimes througliout life, even if the child was not killed inmerliately. All such substances must now bear a warning label, and many Accidents are this prevented.

But this is not yet enough. There are still many substances that are sold and that are very useful but which carry dangers into our homes. And against these substances, some of which are very poisonous; there are as yet po protective ineasures and no requirement for a warning on ihe label. A couple of yours ago many crises of illness, and perhaps soine dentlis occurred in hotels, and some may have occurred also in private homes, where the forks and spoons were cleaned with & silver polish contuining the deadly poison potassiuin cyanide. A few gruins of this polish between the prongs of a fork we're chongli to calise serious illness. There was no warning on the label of that silver polish. It has been withdrawn from sale. But it was an excellent polish, and there is nothing now to prevent another manufacturer from putting out a similar polish containing pustilissium cyanide under a fancy name.

There is now on the market a powder for cockroaches. It contains sodiuin fluoride and lius killed several people who took it by inintake. It is sold in a package that looks like that of salts. It has no warning on the label.

The largest group of poisonous substances that now go into our hoines without any warning of their dangers are various volutile liquids and new cheinical substances that are each yeur invented by chemists, and put on the imarket and sold to the public, before any tent has been inarlo as to whether they are poisonous or not. For such substances there is as yet no requirement that the label shall give warning of danger. One of these substances that is very useful for cleaning purposes in carbon tetruchloride. Now let me buy at once that carbon tetrachloride hus certainly suved more lives and health than it has destroyed or injured. It is very inuch safer to remove grease spots with this liquid than it is with gasoline or riaphtha, for carbon tetrachloride docs not catch fire. It will not burn; but inany a woman has been badly or even fata'ly burned by gasoline. On the other hand, carbon tetrachloride has a vapor tl::t is distinctly poisonous. The substalice should be used only in well-airer places so that the user does not inhale the fuines. In Switzerland carbon tetrachloride hus been used as the solvent for a floor wax in a school. Il caused serious illness. There is now no law or regulation in Ainerica to prevent carbon tetrachloride and similar new substances being used in floor polishi. It can causc scrious illness in children playing on a floor polished with such substances. There is no requireinent now for a warning in the label on the can. It is not sold to the general public as carbon tetrachloride but under a fancy nanio. The next time you buy a bottle or can of cleaning fluid ask what it really in. In fact, when you buy any chemical for use in your home always find out what the constituenis really aro.



I do not want to give you the impression that American manufacturers wish to poison those who by their products. They do not. They are huniano men, and deaths or illnces caused by their products rract against selling their goods. The harm conies from the fact that when a new substance is invented by chemists and is found to be useful for como purposo, it is manufactured and sold without any investigation of whether its use involves hazards to health and life. Chemists had been looking for a substance that would prevent automobile engines from knocking, that is, from premature explosions in the cylinders and loss of power, At last an effective substance was found to be tetraethyl lead; and the manusacturers were about to distribute it all over the country to be added to gasoline at filling stations. Fortunately, scientific men who knew that tetrarthyl icad in a powerful poison were able to warn the inanufacturers in time. As a result the substance, instead of being distributed in concentrated formi, is now mixed with the gasoline at petroleum refineries and distributed as "cthyl gas", which is relatively safe. Warnings are also put on the punipe at filling stations. There have been sew or no careg of posioning Rince those prerautions were put into effect; but without these precautions thero would almost certainly have been hundreds of CAACR of poisoning.

Another substance, inethyl chloride, has, however, caused a punher of deaths. This liquid or gas is need in aoine makes or automatic refrigerators. These refrigerators are certainly a great convenience as compared with the old-fashionce icc refrigerators. They are also quit Rafe if they are made in single units. Methyl chloride in a single iinit refrigerator is perhaps safer even than most of the other gasca that are riscul. But, unfortunately and uwisely, multiple systeins of refrigeratory were allowed to be instalicri in big apartment houses in some cities. Such an installation involves A Brix storage tank or cylinrier of the refrigerant in the basement connected to many refrigerators in the various Apartments. If any one of the refrigrrators in any one of the apartments develops a leak the whole of this large amount of gas from the cylinder and from all the other refrigerators in the building escapes into that one apartment. This occurred in some apartment houses in Chicago and cause a mimber of dratis A year or tivo ago.' Large multiple refrigerator systems are dangerous. Single units are safe.

I could casily toll of other cramples of the houer hold hazares that moriren scientific convenieners have introcjuerd into our homes. The electric light fixtures in a bathroom should always be an arrange that no one can make contact with a live wire with one hand when his other hand is in a wasla basin or his feet in a bath tuh. Crors of death by electrocution by the house current have occurred under such conditions.

There are also the langers from the city has that we cook with nowadays. Old and defective rubber tubes Icading to gas stoves are liable to break and to allow the gas to escape. Deathe irom this CATINC are common. Water heaters, if badly arrangeri, mav also province carbon monoxide. Every gas hrator should be connected with a chimney to prevent this danger. Anotlinr common dangor nowadays is that from carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust gas. Never start the engine of your car, no matter how coid the weather, until you have opened the garage doors.

Senator COPELAND. We are very much obliged to you, Professor Henderson. I will now ask Prof. Allen Freeman, prosessor of health at Johns Hopkins University, to speak to us. STATEMENT OF PROF. ALLEN FREEMAN, PROFESSOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, BALTIMORE.

Professor FREEMAN. Mr. Chnirinn, like Dr. Henderson, I thank you very much for tho privilege of speaking out of order. I shall try to be as bries as possible.

I have only a few words to add to what Dr. Henderson has said: First of all to express my entire agreement with tho purpose and scopo of this revision of the pure food bill.

It was my privilege over n period of some 14 years to serve as a health officer in one jurisdiction or a.1other and to sit, so to speak, at the receiving end of some of these food-poisoning episodes.



I happened to be the responsible officer in charge of the first botulanous epidemic. It was my very unfortunate function to buvo to proside at the funeral of the ripe olive industry. There was no cooperation whatover from the manufacturers of the purticular brand of olivos which caused this opido.nic. Thero wero casos of this particular lot in half a dozen Ohio cities, and no one knew in low inany other parts of t!o United States. There was only one thing to do, that was to advise the people of Ohio not to eat Curtis ripe olives. was subsoquently visitod by a lawyer representing the nianuľucturing concern that did me the compliment of throutening to suo mo for half a million dollars. Thero was no suit, of course. That destroyed that industry. This particular lirm did not belong to the trade association, and this firin hud refused to conform to the simplest roquiremonts necessary to insure the safety of thoir customers. Thoy went down and the grent industry wus or a time completoly destroyed. No one can serve as health officer without being impressed with the very grout nocessity for the most rigid control of food products.

Senator COPELAND. Will you pardon me if I interrupt you? Would it not bo wise for the comfort of poople who eat ripe olivcs to say that the conditions of sterilization and preparation have now been perfected to the point thut the danger which arose in connection with the epidemic mentioned is not likely to recur?

Professor FUEEMAN. Quito. Tam sorry I did not inake that plain, Sunator. The Organized Trade Association took hold of tho problein and within a low years ripo olives were perfectly sasu w eut und huve been ever sinco. I cite that only as an example of the dangers which rosult froin ignorance, whether intentionul or otherwise, of the principles of protection.

Now, I am sure anyone present here who had seen the victins of that epidemic would have felt that no precautiost, however burrlensome it inight be on thut industry, would be too gront to prevent a repetition of that occurrence. It was a persoctly dreadful Things.

I think wo have to recognize in looking at this bill thut the purpose of most processing and what you may speak of as elaboration or sophistication of food is to increuse sule, either through improving the appearance of the product, through dividing it into attractive units so that a higher price for the same aniount can be obtainod; or, as is frequently the case, through reducing the cost of production by providing an inferior product.

When we confront situations like these it seems to me beyond quostion that the consumer hus a right ahead of tho profit. I have no objection to profits in the food industry. Wo could not huvo food without thut, but we must consider the rights of the consumer first Just, and all time.

Then, with reference to this mattor of lead tolerance about which thore was somo discussion this morning; at tho present time it is possible for the lood and Drug Administration to rogulate the annount of load on applos or on pouchos so that if you conlined yourself to applos or poaches you would not get an excessive amount of lead.

The same thing is truo of fresh vegetables, such as cauliflower and cabbage. If I happen to bo fond of applos, cauliflower, and other things on which this arsenic and load is used, the fact that ench ono of thein is individually safe does not nenn that the counbination is



safe. In very truth there must be an allocation of the amount of arsenic which can be used in the different products wo have to eat.

Senator COPELAND. Professor Freeman, have not those tolerancos with reference to arsenic and load been so well established that we might now determine by law what should be the limit of use?

Professor Freeman. I hardly think you coulil determine it permanently by law, Senator, because there are constantly new products coming into the market on which they have been used, and the tolerance permitted on any product is dependent on how many other products have to share in this lead.

So far as cosmetics are concerned, I think every one who has seen the results of somo of the cosmetics now on the market will agroe that some form of regulntion is necessary; and, while we do not want to interfero with anybody paying $3 for a sinall amount of perfumed lard if they wish to, we do not want them to be sold anything that is going to take the hair of their head or ruin their vision or produce horrible scars.

So far as patent medicinos are concerned, I feel very strongly on the subject becauso all must recognize that most of them have no value whatever; that what gives them value is not the formula, not the content of the drug which they contain, but the advertising to which they are attached.

I had the misfortuno once to make an indiscreet remark about a now cure for tuberculosis. The remark was repented in the newspapers and for weeks thereafter my mail was flooded with the most pathetic Jetters from consumptives all over the country. There are thousands of these people suffering from incurable diseases, and we must protect them from the kind of exploitation to which they have boen subjocted in the past and to which they are now being subjected. Based on my knowledge as a health officer, Mr. Chairman, I want to go on record ns favoring the new features of this bill as necessary to tho protection of the public health.

Senator COPELAND. Have the washing methods for apples and poars done very much to givo salety?

Professor FREEMAN. We have been having a great deal of trouble in Maryland in koeping the apples which are being shipped out of Marylnnd to England within the limits of tolerance which Aro Accepted by the English nuthorities. It is a very diflicult thing to get tho arsenic off if too much has been put on.

Senntor COPELAND. Even where certain chemicals have beon used with the water do you still have some difficulty in cleansing the fruit?

Professor FREEMAN. I have not hind any particuinr experience with thoso methods. I have been familiar only with the general course of events. But I wns talking with the doctor who has charge of the mattor in Maryland a few days ngo, nnd ho was very much discouragod at the outlook.

Senator COPELAND. I thank you very much, l'rofessor. I apprecinto your corning. I will call now on Dr. Inven Emerson, representing the American Public Health Association. STATEMENT OF DR. HAVEN EMERSON, REPRESENTING THE

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION Dr. Emerson. Mr. Chairman, I bring for your consideration two resolutions, one from cach of the professions chiefly concerned, and



both in favor of the principles expressed in tho bill. The resolution of the American Public Health Association came from its food and drug section which r'opresents those persons who are in officiul positions as well as in the industry and this is ondorsod by the entire public health profession of our country. I leave this with you for the record. Senator COPELAND. It will be included in the record. (The rosolution referred to is us follows:)

At the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association in Indiunapolis in October of this year, the following resolution was passed:

Whereas the present Federal l'ood and Drugs Act, hots brought a high measure of protection to the American public through its fuithful enforcement, loy the Food and Drug Administration oflicers, itrid

Whiorcus due to changing inethods will manufacture and distribution of food and cruge the net neeede revision to maintain and increase publio protection; therefore be it

Resolved, That the American Public Health Association

1. exprens its confidence in the purposes and principles of the proposed revision of the l'odernl l'ood and Drug Ait low before Congress for action; and

2. solicit the support of all inembers of the issociation to secure the enactment into law of the objectives of this revision, and

3. that this expression of the views of ile associntion be made a part of the rocoril of this meeting.

Dr. EMERSON. On Monday, Decenber 4, the New York Academy of Medicine similarly took cognizanco of this bill and passed u. resolution oxpressing the considered opinion of the clinicians and the hospital physicians and others of the city of Now York. It roads as follows:

Resolveu, That llie New York Academy of Medicine, through its public healtlı relations committee, ('xpress itis whole-heartea supprovill of the fundamental principle's underlying the proposer fierder el licor illud Drugs Art (89-19:11) anel register its conviction that the proposent la Kisiitting in it forwolrd stropi luwatrit the protection of the health of the cilizens of the United States.

As President of the Public Health Association and a member of the public health committee of the academy, I udviso you that wo are constantly observing at the medical centers in New York through the departments of Dernitology ind Medicine the victims of the injudicious use of self-heantification efforts who come to us with many pathologic conditions: Patients with deformed fnces, patients with poisoned bodies, patients suffering at long time distance from the time when they used their medications from chronic poisoning, which they could not themselves suspect from their own symuptoms at the time of using the cosmetic. Imatter which I think should be emphasized in the discussion of this bill is tho chronicity, the long interval between the time of the application of these preparations and the beginning of symptorus whicli ruukes it impossiblo for the individunl consumers to protect themselves as they would ugainst some violent irritant applied to the skin. Lead, silver, and arsenic are common types of chronic poisoning by cosmetics.

I should like to offer one or two brief suggestions for the improvemont or strongthening of the ofľoct of the bill. One of them is the addition of the word "contemporary” in two places which I will call to your attention. On page 9, line 22, ufter the words "agreement of” add the word "contemporary”, making it roud "agreement of contemporary medical opinion.

Ilaving been called us a witness in various cases in the enforcement of the present Food and Drugs Act, I have found the court and other

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