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burnt, were it kept as long on them as it can be kept on the bottom. But no sooner has the boiling ceased, than the bottom itself receives part of the heat of the water, and the finger cannot then touch it, without being burnt.
“ REMARK.-The solution of the following little problem depends, in all probability, on a similar cause.
“ T'o melt lead in a piece of paper. : “Wrap up a very smooth ball of lead in a piece of paper, taking care that there be no wrinkles in it, and that it be every where in contact with the ball; if it be held, in this state, over the flame of a taper, the lead will be melted without the paper being burnt. The lead, indeed, when once fused, will not fail in a short time to pierce the paper, and to run through.” Vol. IV. P. 169.
We can strongly recommend this publication to all masters and tutors of schools and academies as a most useful and entertaining production, and admirably calculated both to inform the mind in the paths of science, and to preserve it from the contagion of idleness and corruption in those hours of leisure in which the student must be his own master. · The plates are explanatory and good, and will have much effect in rendering the problems of experiments easy both to be uuderstood and to be reduced into practice. The whole work indeed reflects much credit upon a man, who has already deserved so well of the scientific world.
Art. VI. The Satires of Juvenal translated into English
Verse. By C. Badhum, M. D. 8vo. pp. 406. 14s. · Longman. 1814. WE scarcely know by what fatality the Manes of Juvenal are doomeu to undergo such perpetual dislocation and dismemberment in the purgatory of translation. Most of the other celebrated poets of antiquity, after having been stretched twice or ihrice upon the rack, or having first been “ done,” or rather squeezed into English by our pedantic forefathers, and afterwards freely paraphrased, or rather paralysed by their degenerate sons, are suffered to rest at peace in their own proper language and shelves. Juvenal alone appears to be selected as a subject for continual experiment, not only in poetry, but even in prose, in which latter form, three monsters are now to be met with ia our British menagerie. :: It might have been supposed that if Holyday and Stapylton had been deemed unqualified for their task, that Dryden and his colkeagues would have answered every purpose for which translation
could have been adapted. Or if these were not sufficient, Mr. Gifford might be esteemed as fully competent to supply all that could be desired. Mr. Hodgson, however, starts up a powerful rival to all that have gone before him, and now Dr. Badham appears the last of Banquo's descendants. We say nothing of a long tribe of worthies, who, with their translations, have long since slept in peace; we are of opinion however that if Dr. Badham could hold the glass in his hand, we should see a host of future translators, whom future days will bring to life.
To account in some measure for this pruriency of translation, we shall not detract in the smallest degree from the merits of those who stand distinguished in this rauk of literature; we shall account for it rather from the unattainable magnificence of the original. Dryden, Gifford, and Hodgson, have each done wonders in their several works, much however still remains and ever will remain to be done. Each of these has justly thought that he has discovered some beauty which his predecessors have overlooked, that he has infused a spirit which they have suffered to evaporate. Each then in detached passages will exceed the other, yet much maysti remain for a more fortunate successor to accomplish, and thus translations may follow translations, differing from each other, perhaps, not so much in the quantum as in the disposition of excellence. With respect also to the laws of translation, there appears to be no general agreement even upon this first point, the difference therefore of style and manner, which each may consider as most adapted to the original, must of itself furnish an endless variety.
There is one great advantage resulting from this competition, we mean the general attention paid on this account to the great original. If the number of translations shall incline our rising youth more deeply to study the spirit, and more accurately to in. vestigate the language of Juvenal himself, we shall hail each new translation as an auspicious event in the annals of scholarship and morality.
Of the many qualities requisite for a translator of Juvenal, Dr. Bedham appears to possess a sufficient proportion ; lie seems to be endowed with a stern and powerful mind, with a considerable share of sound scholarship, and occasionally with no mean poetical power. His principal deficiency may be traced in a cer, tain want of sustainment peculiar to himslf. He seldom indeed grows flat or insipid, but often rugged and harsh ; or to borrow a metaphor from the stable, he seldom flags, but often stumbles. We should imagine that poetry was in some measure a new pursuit with our author, and that he is comparatively fresh in harness; his faults are such as time and attention will correct,
and his excellencies such as will encrease with each succeeding effort.
The first satire is rendered with much spirit and general fidelity. We shall present the reader with the few last lines as a specimen of our translator's powers, adding the versions both of Gifford and of Hodgson.;
“ Securus licet Æneam, Rutulunque ferocem
“ Steer wisely then from this too daring course,
Beneath the Latin and Flaminian way." Ilodgson,
Once more the fierce Rutilian to engage;
But when Lucilius, fired with virtuous rage, i is Nerves his bold arm to scourge an impious age,
The conscious villain shudders at his sin,
Cold drops of sweat from every member roll,
Then tears of shame, and dire revenge succeed
“ J. Yet I must write ; and since these iron times,
Dr. Badham is closer still than either of his predecessors, and by his accuracy hàs rather preserved than diininished the spirit of the original.
“ O bid the Muse to themes more harmless turn,
“ Be then their patience tried, whose benes decay
Beneath the Latin and Flaminian way;" P. 26. We must, lowever, remark that “ be then their patience tried,” is not a sufficiently accurate version of "quid concedatur," although we prefer a couplet rallicr than four lines to convey the sense of the original.
The third satire is a spirited performance, from the latter part of this also we shall extract a passage, in which in our opinion Dr. Badham fully equals either of his niodern predecessors in accuracy and power.
Ebrius ac petulans, qui nullum førte cecidit, &c." .:
- The fiery youth, whom yet no murders stain,
He shuns the brazen lamp, the torches bright;
Say with what cobler didst thou slice the leek,
And eat the boild sheep's head ? --nay, sirráh, speak.'
For once, they'll let him seek his home again !" P.77. The sixth satire is rendered with much delicacy, but without departing from the spirit of the original. Mr. Hodgson - makes too large sacrifices to decency, while Mr. Gifford perhaps speaks out too much in the language of Juvenal; Dr. Badham steers a middle course, and sometimes with much success.
There is not perhaps a more difficult task in the whole range of translation, than to give the reader a sufficient notion both of the vices themselves, and of the spirit with which they are lashed, without offending the chaste ear, by too faithful a transfusion of the gross and disgusting terms in which the attack is carried on. Such however is the task which any one who pretends to give a version of the sixth satire undertakes; “ galeutum serò duelli pænitet.” Dr. Badham has not shrunk from the responsibility attached to such an 'undertaking ; nor will he have any reason to repent of his boldness.
In the seventh and eighth satires our author is by no means unsuccessful; excepting a few errors, they present a very fair transcript of the original. In the tenth, by which the generality of his readers will judge of the merits of the whole, he labours with various degrees of success. In the opening he is clearly surpassed by Hodgson, and perhaps by Gifford; in many parts indeed he falls short of both his rivals; but in the close he comes off victorious from the contest. We shall present the version of