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ing officer esteemed him much; but as soon as the chaplain made his appearance, all cabinets, presses, and cupboards were shut up; for he had carried off handkerchiefs, towels, shirts, and even women's stockings."

This organ is said to be situated “ at the temples, on the anterior inferior angle of the parietal bone.”

9. Organ of Secretiveness. The observations upon this organ are of such a nature as to be below legitimate criticism.

Genus 2.Sentiments. The Organs of the sentiments are divided into those which are common to man and animals, and into those which are pecus liar to humanity. .

10. Organ of Self Love.

11. Organ of Approbation. • 12. Organ of Cautiousness.

13. Organ of Benevolence in Mary and of Meekness into Animals.

Concerning these four organs, which are said to prodace the sentiinents common to man and animals, we shall make no obo servation, and content ourselves with referring our readers to the plate, which marks their locality upon the skull.

SENTIMENTS PECULIAR TO MAN.. 14. Organ of Veneration. It seems that when Dr. Gall goes to church, he, like many others, cannot abstract his mind from its favourite subject of speculation ; nay, he even confesses that he goes to church for no other purpose than that of observing people's heads while they are occupied in the act of saying their prayers. Hence he discovered a peculiar confor. mation of head in those who manifested the greatest fervour of devotion, viz. an elevation of the middle and upper part of the cranium. We are told that the “ pictures of the saints show the very configuration of those pious men whom Gall had first observed," and “ that the head of Christ is always represented as very elevated.” These coincidencies are very extraordinary.

15. Orgun of Hope and Faith.--The supposed identity of religious hope and faith has induced our author to appropriate one and the same organ for their production. To our apprehen. sions however faith is often conversant about objects to which hope has no possible application. Faith, as it respects past events, whether they be of a religious nature or otherwise, is a simple assent of the mind, arising from the sufficiency of the evidence by which they are maintained. Faith, as it respects fue ture events, may be attended by hope or otherwise, according as

we

we ourselves are interested in their completion. Whoever believes in Revelation must have the same degree of faith in the promises of eternal happiness, and in the threatenings of eternal misery. In the latter case hope has certainly no participation, and in the former it is the result and consequence of faith, without being in any way identified with it. In the mind of the Calvinist, who believed himself one of the reprobate, no man will contend for the identity of faith and hope. **16. Organ of Ideality.--By ideality our author means the conimnon faculty of poets.

17. Organ of Righteousness. This organ produces,

“ The sentiment of justice without determining what is just. Particular determinations as to justice depend upon the other faculties with which this sentiment is combined. A person who combines righteousness with some propensity of the lower order, calls just, what another person who possesses righteousness, combined with goodness or veneration, calls unjust."

18. Organ of Determinateness. This organ is productive of firminess and constancy of character, a faculty which respects no particular object, and possesses no determinate and independent power of action, but contributes" to maintain the activity of the other faculties.” ORDER II.-UNDERSTANDING OR INTELLECT..

Genus 1.--Knowing Faculties. 19. Organ of Individuality.--Here it may be well to quote our author at some length for fear of misrepresenting what we do not entirely understand.

165 Persons endowed with this faculty in a high degree are attentive to all that happens around them, to every object, to every phenomenon, to every fact; hence also to motions. This faculty neither learns the qualities of objects, nor the detail of facts; it knows only their existence. The qualities of the objects, and the particularities of the phenomena, are known by the assistance of other organs. Besides, this faculty has knowledge of all internal faculties, and acts upon them. It wishes to know all by experience, consequently it puts every other organ in action; it wishes to hear, see, smell, taste and touch, to know all arts and sciences : it is fond of instruction, collects facts, and leads to practical knowledge.

« I call this faculty that of Individuality, because it knows not only the external world in general, but also each object in its indi. vidual capacity. This organ is early developed in children, because they are obliged to acquire knowledge of the external world. By this faculty, children are attentive to every object and fact,

and in a short time they make an immense number of observa.
tions." P. 430.
• 20. Organ of Form.

21. Organ of Size.
22. Organ of Weight.

In these organs certain faculties are supposed to reside, which are auxiliary to the senses of touch and vision, and whose office it is to perfect the impressions made upon them by external objects. Dr. Spurzheim, having maintained that the ideas of form, and size, and weight, are obviously distinct, and that the faculties by which they are discriminated are different, and require separate organs for their production, proceeds, without a shadow of reason, to place the organ of form in the inner angle of the orbit, and supposes that the organs of size and weight must be situated in the same neighbourhood.

28. Organ of Colour.-The faculty of this organ is auxiliary to the sense of vision. They who possess it are capable of being agreeably or disagreeably affected by the harmony or discord of colours. Without doubt there is such a faculty, which does not reside in the eye, and which bears no proportion to the perfection of the external sense, yet we require more proof than that vouchsafed by our author to convince us that its organ is seated in that portion of the brain which corresponds to the mid space of the arch of the eyebrows,

24. Organ of Space. This faculty is one of immense come prehension ; it

“ Makes the traveller, geographer, landscape-painter ; it recol. lects localities, judges of symmetry; it measures space and dis

tance, and gives notions of perspective : it is the faculty of space | in general. As soon as we have the conception of the existence

of any body, and its qualities, it is necessary that it should occupy a place. This faculty conceives the places occupied by the external bodies. The pictures and busts of great astronomers, navigators, and geographers, as of Newton, Cooke, Columbus, &c. present a great developement of this organ.”

In plate xvi. at the end of the volume, we are presented with the head of Captain Cook, in which “the organ of space” will be found somewhat caricatured, when compared with an original painting in the possession of Sir Joseph Banks. Animals are said to be endowed with the same faculty, and it is supposed to be by its influence that dogs traverse immense tracts of country back to the home of their master, and that birds of passage emigrate and return at certain periods. Dr. Spurzheim however has forgot to inform us, whether the animals in which he thinks this faculty so remarkable possess any external mark of the organ ap

propriated

propriated for its production. Among many statements some-
what difficult of belief in this chapter, that is not the least in-
credible, from which we are left to collect, that Newton owes
his immortality to a faculty which he possessed in common with
a dog.

25. Organ of Order. -
26. Organ of Time.
27. Organ of Number.

The mind being supposed to employ different faculties in the contemplation of external objects, their qualities and the places they occupy is thought to require another specific faculty to lead it to a knowledge of their arrangement with relation to each other. This is the faculty of order. Again, because periods of time constitute a succession which has no regard to order and number, it becomes necessary that there should be an organ of time, and a chronological faculty. Where these organs are placed, our readers will see by reference to the plate. Respecting the organ of number, there are so many notorious examples of individuals possessing powers of calculation which have appeared almost miraculous, and there is something so peculiar in the faculty itself, that if in the authentic busts of all that have been, and on the heads of all that are celebrated calculators, we uniformly found the external mark indicating the orgau of nunber we should certainly abate somewhat of our distrust in the cranological science. Dr. Spurzheim assures us that Newton, Euler, Kaestner, Jedediah Buxton, and Pitt, all possessed this organ. We may add that the American boy, who has lately been an object of curiosity and wonder in this country, possesses a considerable protuberance at the external angle of the eye.

The following enquiry, whether animals are endowed with this faculty, may perhaps afford some amusement to our readers. .

• It is said that a bitch perceives if one of its puppies be taken away; but it is not evident that she counts her young ones. She may perceive by the faculties of individuality and form, that this individual is wanting. George le Roi has observed, that magpies count three; for if we construct a hut in the neighbourhood of a tree, upon which a magpie has placed its nest, and if three persons enter into this hụt the magpie is not deceived; it does not come to its nest before the three persons have left the hut; but if more than three persons enter, it can no more reckon their num. ber, and cannot compare the number of those who are gone in, with that of those who are gone out. Dupont de Nemours, however, thinks that magpies can count nine." P. 443, · 28. Organ of Tune. It is the office of this organ to perfect the impressions made upon the external ear, which of itself has · VOL. III. MAY, 1815. . li. ... . ..

no

no recollection or judgment of tones, Gluck, Hadyn, Mozart, Viotti, Zumstey, Dussek, and Crescentini possessed the exterual maiks indicative of this organ.

« The heads and skulls of birds which sing, and of those which do not sing, and the heads of the different individuals of the same kind which have a greater or less disposition to sing, present a great difference at the place where this organ is situated. The heads of males, for instance, and those of females of the same kind of sing. ing-birds, are easily distinguished by the different developement of this organ.” P. 144.

69. Organ of Language. There is a natural and there is an 'artificial or arbitrary language. Natural language consists in certain outward signs and gesticulations, which express chietly the sentiments and propensities, and in a less degree the conceptions of the understanding. It is common to animals and man, who, 'as far as they are endowed with the same faculties, manifest their activity in the same manner. Artificial or arbirray la iguage results from the superior intellectual faculties, and is the prerogative of mankind.

“ In order to communicate his sensations and ideas to others, man makes more use of the artificial language than of the natural, though natural language always and involuntarily accompanies the artificial.”

Our author does not attribute to the “organ of language," the faculty of producing the arbitary signs which constitute language. They are produced by the superior intellectual organs, and the organ of language" supplies the faculty, whereby they are learnt, when pruduced. Thus the faculty which learns is dif, ferent from those which produce the arbitrary signs. Animals, because they are destitute of the superior faculties, cannot invent an aruficial language, yet they understand and obey certain arbitary signs of their masters.

* Certain children who are half idiots do nat speak, though They do many things like reasonable persons, and manifest sometimes a great deal of cunning. Their parents, relations, and even physicians, cannot believe in their partial imbecility. Though such children be not deaf, though they can pronounce various words, get they do not speak. Physicians often look for the cause of this in the organs of voice, as in the tongue, amygdaloid glands, palate &c.; but these parts are never the cause of the want of language, It is true that the organs of voice produce sounds, but they are pot tlte origin or the cause of vocal language. Certain persons deprived of the tongue have yet continued to speak*. It is evident

" * Bartholin speaks of this in a boy who lost his tongue by sup puration, produced from the small poxi-Huxhaun saw the same

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