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that their pronunciation could not be so distinct as that of other persons, they could not pronounce certain letters; but they felt the necessity of speaking, or of communicating their sensations and ideas, and they actually spoke. On the contrary, these half idiots pronounce single words very well, but they cannot maintain any discourse; they cannot keep up their attention, nor combine their expressions. These children are destitute of the faculty of learning arbitrary signs, as well as of the intellectual faculty of inventing them.” 'P. 454.
But, after all, sufficient evidence is not adduced to prove either the existence or localiiy of au " urgan of language."
GENUS-Reflecting Faculties. 30. Organ of Comparison.
“ Dr. Gall observed various persons, who, in every conversation, had recourse to examples, similitudes, and analogies, in order to convince others; and seldom to reasoning and philosophical arguments. In them he found, in the midst of the superior part of the forehead, an elevation which presented the form of a reversed pyramid, and he named this organ according to its functions, organ of analogy. This organ is developed in all popular preachers beloved by the crowd, who speak of examples and parables, and who choose their similitudes from facts which are generally known. Gall possesses the skulls of two Jesuits who had this faculty in a high degree." P. 457,
31. Organ of Causality,
" The faculty of individuality makes us acquainted with objects and facts; the faculty of comparison points out their identity, ana. logy, and difference; and this faculty (of casuality) desires to know the causes of all events. Consequently, these three faculties together, form systems, draw conclusions, inductions or corollaries, point out principles and laws, and constiiute the true philosophical understanding."
We have the authurity of Dr. Gall that persons, who are ad. dicted to metaphysical studies, have " the superior part of the forehead much developed and prominent in u hemispherical form.”
32, Organ of Wit.
“ Persons who are called witty, who write like Sterne, Voltaire, Piron, John Paul &c. have the superior external parts of the fore
in a girl ;-Scheak, Tulpius, Ritcher &c speak o similar facts. There is also a dissertation by Aurran, De Feminæ Elinguis Loquela, Argentor. 1766."
head elevated. Jest, raillery, mockery, ridicule, irony &c. belong to this faculty. It is asserted that wit consists in comparing the resemblance and dissemblance of objects; but the two preceding fa. culties compare also; and comparing in a philosophical way is quite different from comparing in the witty manner. Thus the essence of this faculty consists in its peculiar manner of compar, ing, which always excites gaiety and laughter." P. 460.
It is remarkable that the portrait of Sterne represents him with the finger resting upon the “ organ of wit."
33. Organ of Imitation. We can only refer our readers to the plate for the locality of this organ.
Thus we have given as ample a view of that part of the work, which we proposed to examine, as our limits will allow; and sufficient, we think, to justify us in the opinion which we are constrained to express, viz. that no organ is proved by sufficient evidence to have a separate existence, and that no external marks are satisfactorily demonstrated to be indicative of mental faculties. We may perhaps be accused of tergiversation and of apostacy from the cause which we once espoused: but a reference to our former articles on the same subject will discover no pledge of allegiance on our part to Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, and no acceptance of their doctrines. We saw indeed, with regret, the prejudices wbich seemed to operate too strongly upon the irritable and susceptible morality of some men's minds, and we endeavoured to give full force to the reasonings which were calculated to expose their absurdity. We could not but allow to our authors some extent of comprehension, and some acquaintance with natural knowledge, when they sought to ilJustrate and ennoble their system by analogies drawn from every part of creation, and to identify it with the scheme of the universe. We could not refrain from lofty expectations, where two quartos could only contain the matter which was prefatory and introductory to the main design. We could not withhold our admiration, if they still protacted the publication of their craniology, while they were occupied in multiplying the extent of their observations and facts, in order to give to their system a completeness worthy of the subject, and were traversing the world, that all mankind might be made subservient to the con: firmation of its truth *.
But from the professed scrupulouşneşs of ous authors, and from the supposed magnitude of their intended work, its appear, ance could not have been anticipated at a very early period. It
* We are told that Drs. Gall and Spurzheim have undertaken their foreign travels in order to confirm their doctrine by observa; tion of the skulls of different nations.
is not therefore without surprise that we find a volume presented to the world by Dr. Spurzheim, of which a very meagre portion is appropriated to what is called the organology, the rest being occupied nearly by the same materials which are contained in the two quartos in French.
Why is not the whole of Dr. Spurzheim's volume dedicated exclusively to a plain exposition and simple detail of the facts which are necessary to establish his philosophy? It was not again necessary to deprecate the prejudices, or.conciliate the favour of mankind. We had already been told, and told in a better manner, that religion and morality had nothing to fear, and that ample benefits might be anticipated from the science of cranology.
If Dr. Spurzheim's volume had not appeared; we should have referred our readers to the “ Analyse d'un cours du Dr. Gall,” to assist them in forming their notions of cranology; a work which, though it is miserably deficient on the points concerning which we wish principally to be informed, cannot be mentioned either with praise or blame, inasmuch as it can scarcely be considered to proceed from our authors. The opportunity which Dr. Spurzheim affords of drinking fresh from the fountain, does pot gratify any anticipations of pleasure which we may have cherished. For the illustrious coadjutor of Dr. Gall exhibits a deplorable poverty of facts which, far from enforcing conviction, can scarcely entertain simple curiosity.
Dr. Spurzheim, indeed, appears to consider himself absolved from the obligation of maintaining his principles and propositions by positive evidence. This, in our opinion, is no slight obe jection to the volume before us; for instance, without condescending to a particular enumeration, he states, in one place, that “ we have an infinity of observations upon this organ, and consider it as proved;" and in another, that “this organ has been proved by many thousand facts;" he may find some who will request an explanation rather more at large.
Dr. Spurzhein, however, may rest his defence against this charge upon the insufficiency of that very evidence which we demand. Had he indeed enlarged, to an immense extent, the facts which he would adduce as proofs of the truth of his principles, it must be remembered that, from the nature of the subject, those very facts must rest as much upon his own ipse dixit, as the principles themselves. Dr. Spurzheim might have enume. rated even by name various persons who, with a mild and benevolent disposition, had the organ of benevolence considerably developed ; if, however, we had no opportunity of observing the appearance of the organ in these very persons, the evidence of so interested a person as Dr. Spurzheim as to its existence,
could have very little weight in convincing the miod of a sceptie. In such cases our own senses must be the only real criterions of the t'uth or falsehood of a system, which is to be universal in its application. But notwithstanding this, the volume would have bien infinitely more anjusing, had a greater number of facts been brought forward in every case, as supports of the principlus aid down, and though the evidence itself might have been liable to strong objections, yet it would in no small degree have engaged the attention and removed the prejudices of those, who are not in the habit of examining much for themselves.
It would be desirable to know whether Dr. Spurzheim bad consulted his associate Dr. Gall, upon the propi iety of commiting his work to the press. It njust be presumed, not, from the litery w lich the formnis assumes of controvering the positions of the latter, and the wide dissent of opinion that visibly exists between the two, upon many of the most important parts of their doctrine. Indeed, so often and so materially are they at variance, that the disciple of the one is no more a dis. ciple of the other, than if he were a perfect infidel. With which of the two then are we to coincide, that we may obtain the praise of an orthodox belief, and avoid the imputation of he'esyo Great are the difficulties which raise themselves as ob. stacies to a just decision. Drs. Gall and Spurzlieim having de. dicated their lives to the theory they profess, have collected obe servations numerous beyond the possibility of quotation, and do no one,” say they “ can have personal or individual conviction before he has made the same observations." It follows, there fore, that à fair estimate cannot be made of their doctrines, unless all mankind shall copsent for a time to forego their or.. dinary pursuits and betake themselves to the study of cra. nology.
Such then is the state of the question. A priori, we conceive, that no valid objection can be raised against the system, as tend. ing in the smallest degree either to materialism or to infidelity. Experience and observation alove can furnish those facts upon which its truth must depend. Of these facts Dr. Spurzheim has given us but a meagre catalogue. Had be indeed enlarged their ostensible number, we must still have taken them upon bis word, which would not have satisfied our mind in a much higher degree, as the word of no individual is sufficient lo verify so extraordinkry a tlieory as the present. Every man must, for the present at least, trust tú his own observation, as the criterion of its truth or falsehood; and that observation in the case before us is attended with no ordinary difficulties. The touch and the sight of but very few are stifiiciently accurate to enable them to form any, but a very general, judgasnt respecting the exist
ence of the organs in question, or to distinguish any, except a very extraordinary, developement. Much controversy still rem mains behind, should the science of cranology be advanced in its progress, as to the position of the organs themselves. There is much, in short, 10 amuse the fancy and to capti ate the imag nation in the study, but we fear that after the first burst of no. velty much also will be found to be intricate and obscure. We are not very sanguine in our expectations of the future advances which will be made in this science; experience, indeed, and obe servation, if conducted with judgment and recorded with cau. tion, may do much ; but much remains to be done. For the present we shall take our leave of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, with all due respect for the ingenuity, the novelty, and the rea search displayed throughout their system, and shall concludę with expressing our opinion of the whole science in the words of a celebrated Cambridge mathematician, who, after having at an advanced period of lite read Milion throughout for the first time, drily observed “ that there was nothing proved from be. ginning to end."
Art. III. An Historical Account of the Episcopal See and
Cathedral Church of Salisbury, illustrated with Engravings. By William Dortszorth. 41. 45. pp. 240. Brodie and Dowding, Salisbury; Cadell and Davies, London.
THE relics of antiquity in many instances contribute to illus. trate both the moral and the religious history of mankind. The works of art which survive the lapse of centuries, and those mas. şive structures, the monuments of the pride or piety of the ruder ages, which length of time has assailed without effect, distinctly iform us that nations have attained to greatness whose fame aud fortune are no longer remenbered, and whose names are scarcely known. Their stately editices and their solemn temples remain to make us acquainted with their habits and their nobler qualities : they remain to gratify the taste, to check the presumption, and perhaps to stimulate the virtue of a better ina structed generation.
The study of antiquities and particularly of antient architecture, is directed to its most useful object when applied in aid of history, when it marks the course and the decline of civilia
zation in the nations which have relapsed into barbarism, and :- discloses the condition and character of mankind before letters