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can be made for us; but professions being ready made, we should choose such as fit us best.
“ 197. Some people are so perpetually disguised to others, that they at last forget they have a real character.
" 198. It is not enough to have great abilities, we must also know how to make use of them; men are often possessed of powers sufficient to have raised them to the highest rank, had they not, through precipitation or self-conceit, quitted the usual track.
“ 199. To hear patiently, and answer precisely, are the great perfections of conversation.” P. 48. · From the specimens which we have given of this little volume, there is much in its contents by which courtesy may be increased, aukwardness relieved, and affectation repressed.
Art. XVI. The Principle of the English Poor Laws illustrat.
ed fro:n the Eridence given by the Scottish Proprietors before the Corn Committee. By J. Meyland. 8vo. 3s. Od. 84 pp. Hatchard. 1814.
The important subject of the Poor Laws has been studied with much industry and perseverance by Mr. Weyland, and the result of his observations do much credit both to his ingenuity and to his feelings. The comparative state of the labouring poor, and of the laws which regulate their support, both in England and Scotland, is well drawn. The following extract will be the best recommendation of the whole of this pamphlet to our various readers.
" I cannot help considering this result to be as fair in theory as it is inevitable in practical operation in a free country: and it ap. pears to be no less tyrannical than impolitic in the government, or the proprietors of a country, either to attempt to counteract its effects, by depressing the real wages of labour by positive enactmentor to avail themselves of the increased wants of the labourer in unfavourable times, by obliging him to labour for their supply beyond the fair degree which his bodily strength will bear without ultimate injury; or for a smaller sum than is sufficient to supply his reasonable wants, as they have been just estimated. A machine overstrained will the sooner wear out and be cast aside. But a man worn out is not so easily disposed of, at least in a free and Christian country; for he must be supported by the rest of the community without any further profitable return from himself.
“It is, therefore, with some indignation at the want of feeling, and some contempt for the want of policy exhibited, that I have noticed the approbation bestowed upon the oeconomical effocts of the low and fluctuating wages which are stated in the evidence to oh. tain in Scotland, where rents it is well known, are extraordinarily high. It appears to meet with the singular approbation of some political economists, that in dear years a Scottish workman, find. ing himself deprived of his usual enjoyments, is naturally excited to greater industry, and is desirous of working extra hours for the purpose of obtaining those comforts to which he has been accustomed ; because this disposition,' it is said, 'must naturally increase, the supply of labour in the market.' But have these gentlemen considered the ultimate sacrifice by which this additional supply is obtained? That it is, Ist, by forcing exertion from one part of the labouring poor at that period when the human frame is least capable of affording it, viz. when the mind and body are equal. ly lowered by personal distress, and the penury of a dependent family ;-and, 2dly, by aggravating the misery of the remainder by depriving them of employment just when they most want it? But let us refer to the evidence itself. One of the witnesses, the Earl of Mansfield, being questioned concerning the relative prices of work done by the piece in Scotland, when grain has been dear and when it has been cheap, answers, · In the year 1813 I contracted with a man to build some rods of masonry-work, and the workman informed me, that, in consequence of the hardness of the times, he executed that work at a lower rate than he would have executed it in years when the price of grain was lower.'
“ Another witness, Patrick Milne, Esq. M. P. states, -“ 1st. “I have always considered, that when grain and other provisions rose, both manufacturing and agricultural labour fell. On the contrary, when provisions and grain fell, manufacturing and agricultural labour rose. The reason is obvious. Supposing there are in any one parish 100 labourers, who are able to do the work of that parish ; if provisions rise, those labourers will do double work : of course, there being only a certain demand for labour, the labour falls.'
" 2dly. Being further questioned, the same witness states, that, under these circumstances, the labourer "very often does too much work, and works beyond his strength when grain is very high. At other times he is idle when grain is low.' .'" 3dly. The witness further states, that in a dear year his bailiff requested permission to have some particular work executed then, rather than at any other time; because he could do it so much cheaper, a great many labourers being idle from having little work in consequence of those who were employed doing double work. I desired him,' says the witness, to go on with that labour likewise ; and he actually contracted for very large ditches at sixPENCE AN ELL, which I do not think I could now do under from a SHILLING TO EIGHTEEN PENCF, in consequence of the fall of provisions." . « 4thly. Being asked, Did you ever know an instance in Scotland where, wages remaining low, and the price of bread rising, relief in that case was given to labourers who were capable of working? The witness answers, "No! I never did.'
“Being again asked, Do you recollect an instance in Scotland of general parochial relief being ever given to the poor in consequence of the high price of provisions ? he answers, "No, I do not. In the towns, in times of scarcity, we have soup kitchens, which have been maintained by private subscription.'
Now, in the first of these answers, we have the fact stated, that when the labourer is least capable of extra work, he is ground down by a forced exertion of double work.
“ In the second, we have one extremely natural consequence, that he does too much work, or works beyond his strength.
“ In the third place, we have another result equally natural, and almost equally humane and profitable to society, viz. that this double work and exhaustion of one portion of the labourers by excessive exertion, tends to exhaust the other portion by actual want of food, in consequence of their having little work to do, at a time when a very great deal of work is absolutely necessary (under the system detailed), even to enable them to provide a scanty supply of necessaries for their families ; for,
* 4th, and lastly, We find that relief is never given to labourers who are capable of working, however incapable they may be of finding work, however low the rate of wages, however scanty the means of employment, and however high the price of provis sions.“ P. 39.
Art. XVII. New Mathematical Tables. By Peter Barlow,
of the Royal Military Academy. 8vo. pp. 336. 188. Ro
binson. 1814. · This is a work of infinite labour, and is executed in such a manner as to be invaluable to those who are employed in any sort of calculation. After some very good remarks upon the construction, application and use of the several tables, we come to the first, which gives the factor Square, Cube Square Root, Cube Root, and reciprocals of every number from 1 to 1000, arranged in one point of view in the following manner. • Numb. | Factor Square | Cube Sgnare Root | Cube Root | Reciprocal
21 3.7 441 9261 | 4.5825757 | 2.7589243 .047619048 · The second table contains the first ten powers of all numbers from 1 to 100. The third contains the 4th and 5th powers of all numbers from 100 to 1000.
The fourth table is calculated for the solution of the irre. ducible case in Cubic Equations, and contains the value of the expression yo-y, for every value of y from 1 to 1.1549.
The fifth table contains all the prime numbers from 1 to 100 103. The sixth gives the hyperholic Logarithms of all huinbers from 1 to 10,000. In the seventh we tind the reduction
of certain differential co-efficients to decimals, which is taken entirely from Vega's Mathematical tables. In the eighth are various formulæ relating to doctrines of Equations, series, flusions, fluents, &c. &c. The ninth gives us the various weights and measures of different nations, with all their reductions and comparisons with those of the English. In the tenth is an accurate account of the specific gravity of most of the substances in nature with which we are acquainted.
Of so laborious and useful a work it is scarcely possible to speak in terms of sufficient commendation. Mr. Barlow has freely pointed out the sources from which many parts of the volunie are derived, and has acquainted us with the principles of bis calculations in those portions which are more properly his owo. But whether copied or original the publication will prove of the highest utility, and we trust that the sale of it will in some measure compensate for the immense pains which must bave been expended in the collection, calculation, and correction of so much importaut matter.
ART. XVIII. Letters from Albion to a Friend on the Continent. 2 vols. 12ino. 14s. Gale, Curtis and Fenner. 1814.
These letters are supposed to be written from a person residing in England to his friend on the Continent during 1810, and the three following years. They contain rapid sketches of the most remarkable scenery both of England and Scotland, and general descriptions of the principal cities and towns. Though the remarks are neither new nor recondite, they are sufficiently amusing to enliven a tedious hour: and these two little volumes will prove very pretty post chaise companions to one who is tra. velling for pleasure in a summer excursion.
The following description of the iron works of Lemington will give the reader a fair idea of the whole,
“ Four miles from Newcastle, on the north side of the Tyne, are situated the iron-works of Lemington, where the ore is melted, cast into pigs, and the iron worked into any shape wanted. You should only see the enormous bellows, with an orifice like the largest cannon's, roaring its breath into a glowing furnace where the ore is brought to fusion, and then moulded into pigs. This is an image of hell, as St. Augustine represents it, and I assure you not without cause.
" A second partition contains ovens and crucibles for melting smaller quantities of metal and casting them into any form ordered. A third is provided with similar ovens, which blaze with eternal fires. It has besides an enormous anvil, which is worked by a steam-engine, as the grand bellows and all the other machines are, wherè immense lumps of iron, as red-hot as they come from the 'furnace, are hammered and beaten into any shape required. There are also two round machines of cast-iron, ever revolving on their axis like a turner's wheel, but in a horizontal position, where iron bars and rods of any size are made. This is effected by thrusting the shapeless red-hot mass between the largest aperture of the wheels, which squeeze and lengthen it to such a degree as to be passed through the second, and gradually third, fourth, and fifth aperture, according to the thickness desired.
The furnaces are heated with coke, made from coal-dust, which is raked asunder when baked together.'
“ The director of these works told me that their iron, in spite of all contrivances, cannot acquire the ductility of the Swedish, on account of the want of charcoal, which contains a greater quan, tity of carbonic acid, productive of that property so much esteemed in iron,”
We must remark, however, that the information conveyed in these letters, is often spoilt by a pert vulgarity both of observation and style, which we are sorry to see extended in some instances towards principle also, as in the remarks on the opposition made to Mr. Lancaster's system of education.
Art. XIX. A Gazetteer of the most remarkable Places in the
World, &c. &c. By Thomas Bourn. 8vo. 965 pp.: 18s. bound. Mawman. 1815.
We are pleased to find that this useful publication has arrived at a second edition. It is not a dry list of names only, but it reminds the reader of the principal events which have happened in the several places, and of the distinguished cha. racters to which they have given birth. It is also particularly useful, as it refers the reader for further information to other and larger works, which in a publication of this kind has hitherto been unusual. A useful table of longitude and latitude is added in the Appendix.
Art. XX. Classical English Letter Writer, or Epistolary Se
lections. 12mo. 362 pp. 4s. 6d. Longman. 1815.
This is not conducted upon the plan of the ancient ready letter-writers, containing black forms for letters of condolence, respect, love, &c. with blanks for the names of the personages concerned; but it is a publication containing, in a cheap and useful form, the letters of our most celebrated English classics, upon various occasions. The names of Gray, Swift, Pope, Warburton, Johnson, D. Home, Lord Chatham, Sir W: