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8 209. Injunctions and other relief
Whenever it appears to any person authorized by the President to exercise authority under this title that any individual or organization has engaged, is engaged, or is about to engage in any acts or practices constituting a violation of any order or regulation under this title, such person may request the Attorney General to bring an action in the appropriate district court of the United States to enjoin such acts or practices, and upon a proper showing a temporary restraining order or a preliminary or permanent injunction shall be granted without bond. Any such court may also issue mandatory injunctions commanding any person to comply with any such order or regulation. In addition to such injunctive relief, the court may also order restitution of moneys received in violation of any such order or regulation. $ 210. Suits for damages or other relief
(a) Any person suffering legal wrong because of any act or practice arising out of this title, or any order or regulation issued suant thereto, may bring an action in a district court of the United States, without regard to the amount in controversy, for appropriate relief, including an action for a declaratory judgment, writ of injunction (subject to the limitations in section 211), and/or damages.
(b) In any action brought under subsection (a) against any person renting property or selling goods or services who is found to have overcharged the plaintiff, the court may, in its discretion, award the plaintiff reasonable attorney's fees and costs, plus whichever of the following sums is greater:
(1) an amount not more than three times the amount of the overcharge upon which the action is based, or
(2) not less than $100 or more than $1,000; except that in any case where the defendant establishes that the overcharge was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to the avoidance of such error the liability of the defendant shall be limited to the amount of the overcharge: Provided, That where the overcharge is not willful within the meaning of section 208(a) of this title, no action for an overcharge may be brought by or on behalf of any person unless such person has first presented to the seller or renter a bona fide claim for refund of the overcharge and has not received repayment of such overcharge within ninety days from the date of the presentation of such claim.
(c) For the purposes of this section, the term “overcharge” means the amount by which the consideration for the rental of property or the sale of goods or services exceeds the applicable ceiling under regulations or orders issued under this title. 8211. Judicial review
(a) The district courts of the United States shall have exclusive original jurisdiction of cases or controversies arising under this title, or under regulations or orders issued thereunder, notwithstanding the amount in controversy; except that nothing in this subsection or in subsection (h) of this section affects the power of any court of competent jurisdiction to consider, hear, and determine any issue by way of defense (other than a defense based on
the constitutionality of this title or the validity of action taken by any agency under this title) raised in any proceeding before such court. If in any such proceeding an issue by way of defense is raised based on the constitutionality of this title or the validity of agency action under this title, the case shall be subject to removal by either party to a district court of the United States in accordance with the applicable provisions of chapter 89 of title 28, United States Code.
(b)(1) There is hereby created a court of the United States to be known as the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, which shall consist of three or more judges to be designated by the Chief Justice of the United States from judges of the United States district courts and circuit courts of appeals. The Chief Justice of the United States shall designate one of such judges as chief judge of the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, and may, from time to time, designate additional judges for such court and revoke previous designations. The chief judge may, from time to time, divide the court into divisions of three or more members, and any such division may render judgment as the judgment of the court. Except as provided in subsection (d)2) of this section, the court shall not have power to issue any interlocutory decree staying or restraining in whole or in part any provision of this title, or the effectiveness of any regulation or order issued thereunder. In all other respects, the court shall have the powers of a circuit court of appeals with respect to the jurisdiction conferred on it by this title. The court shall exercise its powers and prescribe rules governing its procedure in such manner as to expedite the determination of cases over which it has jurisdiction under this title. The court shall have a seal, hold sessions at such places as it may specify, and appoint a clerk and such other employees as it deems necessary or proper.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals shall have exclusive jurisdiction of all appeals from the district courts of the United States in cases and controversies arising under this title or under regulations or orders issued thereunder. Such appeals shall be taken by the filing of a notice of appeal with the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals within thirty days of the entry of judgment by the district court.
(c) In any action commenced under this title in any district court of the United States in which the court determines that a substantial constitutional issue exists, the court shall certify such issue to the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals. Upon such certifications, the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals shall determine the appropriate manner of disposition which may include a determination that the entire action be sent to it for consideration or it may, on the issues certified, give binding instructions and remand the action to the certifying court for further disposition.
(d)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), no regulation of any agency exercising authority under this title shall be enjoined or set aside, in whole or in part, unless a final judgment determines that the issuance of such regulation was in excess of the agency's authority, was arbitrary or capricious, or was otherwise unlawful under the criteria set forth in section 706(2) of title 5, United States Code, and no order of such agency shall be enjoined or set aside, in whole or in part, unless a final judgment determines that such order is in
excess of the agency's authority, or is based upon findings which are not supported by substantial evidence.
(2) A district court of the United States or the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals may enjoin temporarily or permanently the application of a particular regulation or order issued under this title to a person who is a party to litigation before it. Appeals from interlocutory decisions by a district court of the United States under this paragraph may be taken in accordance with the provisions of section 1292(b) of title 28, United States Code; except that reference in such section to the courts of appeals shall be deemed to refer to the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals.
(e)(1) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, no interlocutory or permanent injunction restraining the enforcement, operation, or execution of this title, or any regulation or order issued thereunder, shall be granted by any district court of the United States or judge thereof. Any such court shall have jurisdiction to declare (A) that a regulation of an agency exercising authority under this title is in excess of the agency's authority, is arbitrary or capricious, or is otherwise unlawful under the criteria set forth in section 706(2) of title 5, United States Code, or (B) that an order of such agency is invalid upon a determination that the order is in excess of the agency's authority, or is based upon findings which are not supported by substantial evidence.
(2) Any party aggrieved by a declaration of a district court of the United States respecting the validity of any regulation or order issued under this title may, within thirty days after the entry of such declaration, file a notice of appeal therefrom in the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals. In addition, any party believing himself entitled by reason of such declaration to a permanent injunction restraining the enforcement, operation, or execution of such regulation or order may file, within the same thirty-day period, a motion in the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals requesting such injunctive relief. Following consideration of such appeal or motion, the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals shall enter a final judgment affirming, reversing, or modifying the determination of the district court and granting such permanent injunctive relief, if any, as it deems appropriate.
(f) The effectiveness of a final judgment of the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals enjoining or setting aside in whole or in part any provision of this title, or any regulation or order issued thereunder shall be postponed until the expiration of thirty days from the entry thereof, except that if a petition for a writ of certiorari is filed with the Supreme Court under subsection (g) within such thirty days, the effectiveness of such judgment shall be postponed until an order of the Supreme Court denying such petition becomes final, or until other final disposition of the action by the Supreme Court.
(g) Within thirty days after entry of any judgment or order by the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, a petition for a writ of certiorari may be filed in the Supreme Court of the United States, and thereupon the judgment or order shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court in the same manner as a judgment of a United States court of appeals as provided in section 1254 of title 28, United States Code. The Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, and the Supreme Court upon review of judgments and orders
of the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, shall have exclusive jurisdiction to determine the constitutional validity of any provision of this title or of any regulation or order issued under this title. Except as provided in this section, no court, Federal or State, shall have jurisdiction or power to consider the constitutional validity of any provision of this title or of any such regulation or order, or to stay, restrain, enjoin, or set aside, in whole or in part, any provision of this title authorizing the issuance of such regulations or orders, or any provision of any such regulation or order, or to restrain or enjoin the enforcement of any such provision.
(h) The provisions of this section apply to any actions or suits pending in any court, Federal or State, on the date of enactment of this section in which no final order or judgment has been rendered. Any affected party seeking relief shall be required to follow the procedures of this title. 8 212. Personnel
(a) Any agency or officer of the Government carrying out functions under this title is authorized to employ such personnel as the President deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this title.
(b) The President may appoint five officers to be responsible for carrying out functions of this title of whom three shall be compensated at the rate prescribed for level III of the Executive Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5314) and two at the rate prescribed for level V of the Executive Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5316). Appropriate titles and the order of succession among such officers may be designated by the President.
(c) Any member of a board, commission, or similar entity established by the President pursuant to authority conferred by this title who serves on less than a full-time basis shall receive compensation from the date of his appointment at a rate equal to the per diem equivalent of the rate prescribed for level IV of the Executive Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5315) when actually engaged in the performance of his duties as such member.
(d)(1) In addition to the number of positions which may be placed in GS-16, 17, and 18, under section 5108 of title 5, United States Code, not to exceed twenty positions may be placed in GS-16, 17, and 18, to carry out the functions under this title.
(2) The authority under this subsection shall be subject to the procedures prescribed under section 5108 of title 5, United States Code, and shall continue only for the duration of the exercise of functions under this title.
(e) The President may require the detail of employees from any executive agency to carry out the purposes of this title.
(f) The President is authorized to appoint, without regard to the civil service laws, such advisory committees as he deems appropriate for the purpose of consultation with and advice to the President in the performance of his functions under this title. Members of advisory committees, other than those regularly employed by the Federal Government, while attending meetings of such committees or while otherwise serving at the request of the President may be paid compensation at rates not exceeding those authorized for individuals under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code, and, while so serving away from their homes or regular places of business, may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem as authorized
by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code, for persons in the Government service employed intermittently.
(g)(1) Under such regulations as the President may prescribe, officers and employees of the Government who are appointed, without a break of service of one or more work days, to any position for carrying out functions under this title are entitled, upon separation from such position, to reemployment in the position occupied at the time of appointment or in a position of comparable grade and salary
(2) An officer or employee who, at the time of his appointment under paragraph (1) of this subsection, is covered by section 8336(c) of title 5, United States Code, shall continue to be covered thereunder while carrying out functions under this title. 8213. Experts and consultants
Experts and consultants may be employed, as authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, for the performance of functions under this title, and individuals so employed may be compensated at rates not to exceed the per diem equivalent of the rate for grade 18 of the General Schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, United States Code. Such contracts may be renewed from time to time without limitation. Service of an individual as an expert or consultant under this section shall not be considered as employment or the holding of an office or position bringing such individual within the provisions of section 3323(a) of title 5, United States Code, section 872 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946, or any other law limiting the reemployment of retired officers or employ