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at least of both, have been loud in their appeal to principles of moderation when undermost, and very ready when they obtained dieupper hand to abuse the advantages which the changes of the state had alternately given to them. This is a deep and rankling wound, which will require to be treated with no common skill. The protestants of the South are descendants of the ardent men who used to assemble by thousands in the wilderness—I will not say with the scoffer, to hear the psalms of Clement Marot sung to the tune of Ttestillez vous, belle Endormie—but rather, as your Calvinistic heroes of moor and moss, in the days of the last Stuarts, are described by a far different bard, dear in remembrance to us both, for the affectionate sympathy and purity of his thoughts and feelings; when in the wilderness
"arose the song, the loud
Acclaim of praise: The whirling plover ceased Her plaint; the solitary place was glad, And on the distant cairns the watcher's ear Caught doubtfully at,times the breeze-borne note."
* On the other hand, the catholics are numerous, powerful in the hope of protection and preference from the crown, and eager to avenge insults, which, in their apprehension, have been aimed alike at the crown and the altar. If we claim for the protestants, whose nearer approach to our own doctrines recommends them to our hearts as objects of interest, the sympathy which is due to their perilous i-it nation, let us not, in candour, deny at least the credit of mistaken zeal to those whom different rites divide from us. In the name of that Heaven, to whose laws both forms of religion appeal, who has disclaimed enforcing the purest doctrines by compulsion, and who never can be worshipped duly or acceptably by bloody sacrifices, let us deprecate a renewal of those savage and bloody wars, which, founded upon difference of religious opinion, seem to convert even the bread of life itself into the most deadly poison. British interference, not surely so proposed as to affront France's feelings of national independence, a point on which late incidents have made her peculiarly irritable—but with the earnest and anxious assurances of that goodwill, for which our exertions in behalf of the royal family, and our interest in the tranquillity of France, may justly claim credit,—might, perhaps, have some influence with the government.' pp. 401—105. • It is certain, that the security of the protestant religion abroad is now, as in the days (of Charles the Second) a wall and defence unto that which we profess at home; and at all times, when England has been well administered, she has claimed and exercised the rights of intercession in behalf of the Reformed Churches.' pp. 405—406.
Art. VI. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. For the Year 1814. Parts I. and II. 4to. G. and W. Nicol. London, 1814. (Chemical and Physiological Papers.}
A Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents. By William
Hyde Wollaston, M. D. Sec. R. S.
nPHIS most ingenious instrument will be found to possess a -*• Tklue abuott incalculable in the hands of the practical chemist. It is formed on the principle of the Common Sliding Rule, and resembles that instrument in its mode of application. The establishment of the atomic theory, or the theory of volumes, of the substantial truth of which we apprehend there is now no doubt in the mind of chemists, has laid a foundation for so great a degree of precision and accuracy in its results, that it will be resorted to on most occasions, as a substitute for experiments or calculations which would occupy a large portion of time, even in the hands of the most expert chemist. We cannot give a better idea of its practical value, than by using the illustration of its ingenious inventor.
'The means by which this is effected, may be in part understood, by inspection of the Plate I. in which will be seen the list of substances intended to be estimated, arranged on one or the other side of a scaje of numbers in the order of their relative weights, and at such distances from each other, according to their weights, that the series of numbers placed on a sliding scale, can at pleasure be moved, so that any number expressing the weight of a compound, may be brought to corresporid with the place of that compound in the adjacent column. The arrangement is then such, that the weight of any 'ingredient in its composition, of any re-agent to be employed, or pre cipitate that might be obtained in its analysis, will be found opposite to the point at which its respective name is placed. In order to shew more clearly the use of this stale, the Plate exhibits two different situations of the slider, in one of which oxygen is 1G, and other bodies are in due proportion to it; so that carbonic acid being 27.54, atid lime 35.46, carbonate of lime is placed at 63. In the second figure, the slider is represented drawn upwards until 100 corresponds to muriate of soda; and accordingly the scale then shews how much of each substance contained in the table is equivalent to 100 of common salt.
'It shews, with regard to the different views of the analysis of this salt, that it contains 46.6 dry muriatic acid, and 53,4 soda, or 30.8 sodium, and 13.6 oxygen; or if viewed as chlorid of sodium, that it contains 60.2 chlorine, and 39.8 sodium. With respect to re-agents, it may be seen that 283 nitrate of lead, containing 191 of litharge employed to separate the muriatic acid, would yield a precipitate of 237 muriate of lead, and that there would then remain in solution nearly 146 nitrate of soda. It may at the same time be seen, that the acid in this quantity of salt, would serve to make 232 corrosive sublimate, containing 185.5 red oxide of mercury, or would make 91.5 muriate of ammonia, composed of 6 muriatic gas, (or hydro-muriatic acid) and 29 5 ammonia.
* The scale shews also, that for the purpose of obtaining the wholr of the acid in distillation, the quantity of oil of vitriol required is nearly 84, and that the residuum of this distillation would be 122 dry sulphate of soda, from which might be obtained by crystallization, 277 of Glauber salt, containing 155 water of crystallization These, and many more such answers, appear at once by bare inspection, a* soon as the weight of any substance intended for examination, is made by the motion of the slider correctly to correspond with its place in the adjacent column.'
The mere enumeration of these advantages, is sufficient to prove its great and inestimable importance.
Analysis of a New Species of Copper Ore. By Thomas Thomson, M.D. F.R.S. L. and E.
The mineral of which this paper contains an analysis, was discovered about the year 1800, by Dr. Benjamin Heyne, in the Peninsula of Indoostan, near the eastern border of the Mysore. It is an anhydrous carbonate of copper; and consequently constitutes a species perfectly distinct from the two native carbonates of this metal already known, the malachite, and the blue carbonate, which are both hydrous carbonates, one containing twice as much water as the other. From the analysis of Dr. Thomson, this ore is composed of carbonic acid 16.70, peroxide of copper 60.75, peroxide of iron 19.50, silica 2.10, loss. 95, in 100 parts. And as an integrant particle of carbonic acid weighs 2.751, and an integrant particle of peroxide of copper, weighs 10, these numbers bear the same proportion to each other, that 16.7 does to 60.75; so that no reasonable doubt can exist that the carbonic acid and oxide of copper are combined in the ore, and that the other constituent parts are only in a state of mechanical mixture. All the specimens seen by Dr. Thomson, were amorphous.
The Bakerian Lecture: on some new Electro-chemical Phenomena By William Thomas Brande, Esq. F. R. S. Prof. Chem. R I. The experimental investigation of the chemical agency of the electrical fluid, has led, as might he expected, to the observation of some phenomena of a singular and unexpected kind, and which have not appeared to be easily explained on the generally received theory.
Mr. Ciithbertson had remarked, that when the flame of a candle is placed between two surfaces in opposite states of eleotricity, the negative surface becomes most heated; which he regarded as affording evidence of the passage of the electrical fluid from the positive to the negative surface. And Mr. Erman has shewn, that some substances are unipolar in regard to Voltaic electricity, or are only susceptible of transmitting one kind of electricity.
Mr Brande has endeavoured in this communication, to prove that these phenomena accord with the ordinary laws of electrical action; and he has at least rendered it probable that some of them are referrible to these laws. He made a number of experiuients with the flame of different substances placed between two hollow brass spheres in opposite electrical states, and each inclosing the bulb of a delicate thermometer. The spheres were placed at the distance of about four inches from • • < i> other, and the subject of examination equidistant between them. Th* genenil results of the experiments were such as to afford pretty strong proof, that the phenomena were influenced by the known laws of electro-chemical agency. Substances which, during combustion, are changed into acids, were attracted by the positive surface; and those which form products of an alcaline nature, were attracted by the negative surface; and, consequently, the superior temperature of that sphere to which the name waa attracted, was obviously connected with the direction given to the flame by this attraction, and could not be attributable, as Mr Cuthbertson supposed, to the transfer of electric matter. These phenomena were particularly obvious with phosphorus, whether in slow or rapid combustion, and benzoic acid, which were determined to the positive surface, and potassium, camphor, and resinous substances, which were inclined to the negative one The flame of a small stream of olifiant gas, raised the thermometer on the negative side, in one minute, from 60° to 72°; the positive thermometer being raised only from 60 to 62°.
Some of the phenomena observed, were however rather anomalous. The flame of carburetted hydrogen, for example, was entirely and powerfully attracted by the negative surface, and the flame of carbonic oxide was not very evidently attracted by either pole. Mr. B. thinks it not improbable, that the carbonic acid produced during the combustion of carburetted hydrogen, may pass to the positive surface, and that the direction of the flame may be influenced rather by the combustible, than by the product of combustion. This, however, does not appear to us to be a very satisfactory solution of the difficulty. The facts contained in the paper are, notwithstanding, very interesting; they afford strong evidence in favour of the theory of the inherent electrical states of matter. And they confirm in the most decisive manner, the conclusion from Dr. Wollaston's experiments of the identity of the chemical powers of common, and of Voltaic electricity.
An Account of some new Experiments on the Fluoric Compounds; with some Observations on other Objects of Chemical Inquiry. By Sir H. Davy, LL.D. F. R. S. and P.A.I.
The experiments detailed in this communication, tend to confirm the inferences deduced from Sir Humphrey's former experiment on this subject, that pure fluoric acid is, like muriatic a«id, a compound of hydrogen united to a base which from its strong attraction for hydrogen, has not yet been exhibited in a separate form; but which may be detached from its combination with hydrogen by some metallic bodies. Since his former communication, Sir H. has made various attempts to separate the fluoric base by electro-chemical agency; but without success. Fluate of lead when moist, was found to be easily decomposed by ammoniacal gas, and a white powder was separated, which must contain oxygen, since carbonic acid was formed by igniting it with charcoal; but dry fluate of lead was fused in ammonia, without the slightest change being produced; so that the presence of water seems indispensably necessary for the production of oxidated bodies from the fluoric combinations.
Analogous results were obtained by the action of chlorine on silicated fluate of ammonia, and fluo-borate of ammonia. When the salts were moist, or when the gas was not free from vapour, silica and boracic acid were formed in small quantity; but if the presence of water was carefully excluded, these bodies were not produced; and the results were muriate of ammonia, and silicated fluoric gas, or fluo-boric gas and azote. Two points of charcoal were intensely ignited in fluo-boric and silicated fluoric gas, both pure, and mixed with oxyaren; but there was no indication of any decomposition. A very small quantity of hydrogen was produced, which Sir H. supposes was disengaged from the ignited charcoal. Pure liquid fluoric acid, was passed over charcoal ignited to whiteness in a tube of platinum; no carbonic acid was formed; but as in the former experiment a minute quantity of hydrogen was produced. Sir H. renewed his attempts to ascertain the composition of some of the fluatcs, by a repetition of some of his former processes; and their general results lead him to conclude, that the number representing fluorine, is about 33, or less than half that which represents chlorine; which coincides with the conclusions drawn from his former experiments, already published in the Transactions.
Sir H. made some direct experiments to determine the proportions in which oxygen exists in silica; but they were not successful. He ascertained, however, that it requires more than three parts of potassium to decompose one part of silica; and silica it would appear therefore cannot contain much less than half of its weight of oxygen. The attempts made to separate the basis of silica in a pure form, were not perfectly satisfactory, though deserving of notice, as being likely to lead to more successful efforts. Silica was decomposed by passing potassium through it in a heated tube of platinum. The result obtained was alcali, having a dark-coloured powder diffused through it. This was presumed to be the basis of silica. The whole mass was fused with sulphur, and became ignited, by the combination of the sulphur with the dry alcali. The sulphuret of potash was
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