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muriates of potash ; they scintillate when thrown upon burning coals, and deflagrate with charcoal. When fused, they afford abundance of oxygen gas, and the compound of potassium and the new body, remains. After the mother liquor has ceased to yield crystals, if it is evaporated to dryness, it affords a large quantity of the compound of the substance with potassium; so that by dissolving the substance in solution of potash, the two new products are formed. When the substance in vapour is passed over dry red hot potash formed immediately from potassium, the oxygen of the potash is expelled, and the substance combines with potassium ; so that the triple combination of this compound witli oxygen, does not exist at a red heat. It presents the same phenomena with solutions of soda and baryta. It is obvious, therefore, that the earlier discovery of this singular substance, would have led to the discovery of the fixed alcalies being oxidized metals, without the agency of Galvanic electricity. While it expels oxygen from some of its combinations, it is again displaced by chlorine from its combination with metals. Thus, when the compound of the substance with potassium is heated in chlorine gas, potassane is formed, and the violet coloured gas is separated, which soon combining with chlorine gas, forms the acid compound already noticed; but as the chlorine diminishes towards the end of the process, the violet gas again appears, it presents similar phenomena in its compounds with silver, mercury, and lead, heated in contact with chlorine.
The phenomena which its compounds present when acted upon by acids, are such as might be anticipated from its analogy with chlorine. Concentrated sulphuric acid poured upon the combination with potassium, occasions the disengagement of some of the new body; but part of it enters into combination with hydrogen and water, and evaporates; and when condensed, appears of a deep orange colour, from holding some of the substance in solution. Part of it seems to be retained by the sulphuric acid; for it continues to be red after being strongly heated, and some sulphurous acid gas is disengaged. When sulphuric acid is poured on the triple saline compound of the new body, potassium, and oxygen, there is a slight effervescence, and the new matter reappears: part of the oxygen enters into combination with the potassium, and forms potash; the remaining portion is expelled, and occasions the effervescence.
Similar phenomena are presented with nitric acid. When the triple compound is acted upon by muriatic acid, there is no effervescence, but a substance which appears to be a compound of chlorine and the new substance, is formed, and potassane is precipitated. When the binary compound is exposed to the action of the same acid, there is a complete solution with partial decomposition; and by applying heat, the excess of muriatic acid is driven off, and the acid resulting from the combination of the new substance with hydrogen, remains in the solution. When mixtures of the two salts are employed, the new body itself appears. When the new body is exposed to the action of liquid ammonia, a black powder is formed, and the liquid, when evaporated, yields a saline substance, having the properties of that produced by the combination of ammonia with the acid formed by the new body and hydrogen. This renders it probable that part of the ammonia is decomposed; and when the experiment was made in a pneumatic apparatus, no azote was disengaged. The black powder is therefore most probably a compound of the new substance with azote. The highly detonating property of this powder was announced by Desormes and Clement, and Sir H. found on detonating it in a partially exhausted glass tube, that the results were the peculiar substance, and a non-inflammable gas, which does not support flame; and these seem to be the only products except moisture is present. From experiments made to determine the weight of its atom, SirH. estimates it at about 160, a number higher than that of the simple inflammable bodies, and even greater than most of the metals.
This new body is not decomposed when Voltaic sparks are taken from ignited points of charcoal in its vapour. There is at first a production of white fumes; but these soon cease, and when the tube is cooled, the substance does not appear to have undergone any change.
There is strong reason to conclude from these facts, that it is a new simple body, which, though in its lustre and specific gravity, and the weight of its atom, it has a resemblance to the metals, yet in all its chemical properties appears to belong to the same class with oxygen and chlorine. It is a non-conductor of electricity; and like these bodies possesses the negative electrical energy in relation to metals, inflammable and alcaline substances, but the positive energy in relation to chlorine. This corresponds with their attractive energy, for chlorine expels it from all its combinations with which the experiment has been made. It possesses a stronger attraction for most of the metals than oxygen; but oxygen expels it from its combination with sulphur and phosphorus. The little production of heat and light when it enters into combination, is probably connected with the great weight of its ultimate atoms, and its solid form. Its powers of saturation appear to be greater than those of oxygen, and less than that of chlorine. It agrees with chlorine and fluorine in forming an ■cid when combined with hydrogen; and with oxygen in forming an acid with chlorine.
The French Chemists have proposed to name this new substance tone, from the violet colour of its gas. Our countryman apprehending that this would lead to some confusion, as we have already the words Ionic and Ionian, applied to very different objects, proposed to call it iodine. He almost destroys the force of his own objection, however, when he admits that the acid formed by its combination with hydrogen, may be with great propriety named hydroionic acid, and with chlorine, chlorionic, and with tin stunnionic. Its combinations with the metals Sir H. proposes should be called iodes, prefixing the Greek numerals to indicate different proportions. This seems unobjectionable; but we forbear to enter into the consideration of the other suggestions of Sir H. on the subject of nomenclature, as their adoption appears to us likely to lead to an almost inextricable degree of confusion, and to be very far remote from the simplicity which ought to pervade all systematic nomenclature. Nor can we see any satisfactory reason, if it is to retain the name of iodine, that its acids should not be hydroiodic, chloroiodic, &c. At least this would be consistent; nor does it appear that they are liable to objection on any ground whatever.
Art. VII. Sermons designed chiefly fur the Use of Villages and Families. By Thornhill Kidd. In 2 vols (Second Edition of Vol.I.improved.) 8vo. pp. 710. Price 16s. Black, 1815.
"^X7"E are very glad that the encouragement given to the former "edition of Mr. Kidd's first volume, has induced him to reprint it with a second volume, equally adapted to the purpose for which the work is peculiarly designed. In our review of the first volume, (Oct. 1814,) we ventured to characterize it as containing some of the best sermons for the purpose of village and family reading, that we had seen. There is a genuine simplicity of manner pervading them, never degenerating into quaintness, which we are disposed to value the more, from the extreme rareness of the quality. Simplicity of style is, however, rather to be felt by the reader, in the strong impression it is adapted to produce, than to be at once perceived on a cursory inspection of the work; and on this account, what we deem the peculiar merit of Mr. Kidd's discourses in a literary respect, may not be so obvious, as their interesting variety of subject, their practical tendency, and their affectionate tone. We are nevertheless persuaded that the style Mr. Kidd has adopted, will be found the best calculated to exhibit in their most striking aspect, the obvious and acknowledged truths of which practical Christianity consists. It is impossible for a preacher, whose object is to adapt his style to the humblest level of intelligence, to avoid the occasional necessity of uttering a truism; and some' times the most naked form in which this can be presented, may be found the most successful in startling the mind from moral forgetfulness, to consider the consequences of its admission. We all know the effect which a few words in the homely language of feeling, unexpectedly introduced in poetical compositions, are found to produce. Religion, so far as it has to do with the feelings, rejects any other dialect; and the plainest language, so long as it is free from coarseness and vulgarity, is the most consonant with the real buniness of the-heart.
Mr. Kidd's second volume, of which we need only say, that it is in all respects equal to his first, contains seven-and-twenty sermons. One, " On the piety of Abijah," is addressed to young persons: it shall furnish an extract.
'It was piety "in the house of Jeroboam." This gave it a decided character, and made it more remarkable.
'Jeroboam, on the division of the kingdom, headed the revolt of the Ten Tribes, and by them was acknowledged as king, in opposition to Rehoboam, the son and legal successor of Solomon. Without education, without principle, and elevated to the throne of Israel from a very inferior situation, his conduct, as might be expected, was corrupt and cruel. He openly countenanced idolatry: forbidding the people to assemble at Jerusalem, he set up calves for worship at Dan and Bethel: he made priests of the lowest of the people: he treated the authorised prophets of the Lord with contempt and insult; and in many ways discovered the baseness of his character, the depravity of his heart. Such was the father of this amiable youth. There » a evidently in his family much to oppose the spirit and practice of piety.
* Rank opposed it. Men in elevated stations are rarely eminent for religion. The palaces of kings, the scenes they continually present, and the dissipation they naturally produce, are not friendly to the growth of serious godliness—Idolatry opposed it. The insult offered to Jehovah, which false worship implies, the absurdity and iniquity which it always involves, were directly inimical to spiritual devotion. —And wickedness opposed it. This doubtless prevailed in its varied forms, and to a serious degree, in the court of Jeroboam; for when men are alienated from the true God, when they reject his service, contemn his authority, and from motives of carnal policy prescribe for themselves, none can say to what lengths they will run. Restraint is removed, evil propensities are strengthened, a system of error and iniquity commences, which presently becomes established. Who does not feel for this amiable youth; surrounded with snares, and exposed to constant derision? We glorify the grace of God in him; and we admire the holy tirmness he maintained amidst such powerful disadvantage*.
'Others have held their integrity in dangerous situations. Joseph, and Nehemiah, and Daniel, were religious characters in the courts of heathen princes. Zaccheus was a publican, Zenas a lawyer, and Cornelius a soldier; yet each was a convert to Christianity. Theer were saints in " Caesar's household;" a fact no less remarkable than Abijah's piety "in the house of Jeroboam." But God preserved them! And their safety in such circumstances, while it reproves our sinful timidity, greatly encourages our faith and our hope.
• The lot of some who are present may be cast among profane and wicked persons: you may sit solitary in prayerless families; but be decided. Adore the grace which makes you to differ, and look to the same grace at once for prudence and preservation. Remember, your singularity is your honour. That for which you are reproached by men, is approved of angels, and is highly esteemed in the sight of God. Your situation also gives occasion to the exercise of benevolent affections, and these may produce the most beneficial effects.' pp. 65—66.
'The prayer of Jesus on the Cross,' is the title of an excellent sermon on Luke, xxiii. 34. Mr. Kidd remarks,
'One favourable circumstance attending the manner of the Saviour's death was, it allowed him time to express his feelings, and the compassionate Sufferer wisely improved it. Many gracious words proceeded from his lips, but none more kind than these. In the severity of his pain, he uttered no complaint, he charged no one with cruelty; he addressed himself to his heavenly Father, and what did he request? Nothing for himself; in the tenderness of his concern for others, he forgot himself. His petition was in behalf of his ene. mit s his murderers, and instead of calling for vengeance, he pleaded that mercy might reach them, and forgiveness be granted them. "Then said Jesus "—as he hung bleeding on the cross, in the extremity of his anguish, and amidst the barbarous insults of an infatuated crowd—" Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do."
'The immediate effect produced by this/unparalleled combination of suffering, patience, benevolence, and love, was striking:—" Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying,' Certainly this was a righteous man. And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned." pp. 96, 97.
The deductions on which the preacher proceeds to found his discourse, are
'I. That sin is founded in much ignorance: "They know not what they do." II. That Ignorance is no sufficient excuse for sin. III. That forgiveness of sin is an act of Divine ~ ',;•.:>.<.\. and the fruit of The Saviour's Intercession.'
The subject is in conclusion employed to enforce the duty of regarding the intercession of Christ in the forgiveness of sins; and that of imitating Jesus in the forgiveness o; injuries.
We hope these specimens of the volume, will sufficiently recommend it to general use in ( villages and families.'