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21. Questions proposed by France, and answers of tho Continental powc

England, . 1j .

22. Views of what had occurred in this Congress,

28. Views of M. de Villele and Louis XVIII.,

24. Secret correspondence of M. de Villele and M. de Lagarde,

25. Debate on it in the Cabinet, and resignation of M. do Montmorenc

is succeeded by M. do Chateaubriand, .

26. The warlike preparations of France continue, .

27. Failure of the negotiations at Madrid, and departure of tho French

sador, .......

28. Speech of the king at the opening of the Chambers,

29. King of England's speech at opening of Parliament,

30. Reply of the Spanish government, ....

31. M. Hyde de Neuville's address in reply to the speech of tho king,

32-39. Speech on the war in the House of Commons by Mr Brougham,

40. Mr Canning adopts the principle of non-interference,

41 -52. M. de Chateaubriand's reply in the French Chambers,

53. Immense sensation produced by this speech, .

54. M. Talleyrand's speech on the war, ....

65. Vote of credit of 100,000,000 francs, ....

66-57. Affair of M. Manuel, in the Chamber of Deputies: his speech,

58. Storm in the Chamber, . .....

59. Expulsion of M. Manuel, .....

60. Dramatic scene at his expulsion, ....

61. General enthusiasm excited by the Spanish war,

62. Preparations of the Liberals to sow disaffection in tho army, .

63. Feelings of Mr Canning and the English people at this crisis, .

64. Views of Mr Canning at this juncture, ....

65. Portrait of Mr Canning, by M. Marcellus,

66. His opinion as to the probable duration of the war,

67. Views of George IV. and the Duke of Wellington on the subject,

68. Difficulties of the French at the entrance of tho campaign,

69. Which are obviated by M. Ouvrard, ....

70. Forces, and their disposition on both sides,

71. The Spanish forces, ......

72. Theatrical scene at the passage of the Bidassoa,

73. Progress of the French, and their rapid success,

74. Advance of tho Duke d'Angouleme to Madrid,

75. Advance of the French to Madrid, ....

76. Entry of the Duke d'Angouleme into Madrid, .

77. Advance of the French into Andalusia,

78. Proceedings of the Cortes, and deposition of Ferdinand VII.,

79. Violent reaction at Seville, and over all Spain, . . J

80. State of affairs in Cadiz, . . . . .

81. Advance of the Duke d'Angouleme into Andalusia, and decree of Ai

82. Its provisions, .......

83. Violent irritation of the Royalists in Spain,

84. Progress of the siege of Cadiz, .....

85. Assault of the Trocadero, . • . . •

86. Operations of Riego in the rear of the French, .

87. Defeat and capture of Riego, .....

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88. Resumed negotiations at Cadiz, and assault of Santa Petri, . . 701

89. Deliverance of the king, and dissolution of tho Cortes, . . 702

90. Scene at his deliverance, ...... 703

91. First acts of the new Government, . .... to.

92. Loud calls on Ferdinand for moderation and clemency, . , 704

93. Sentence of Riego, ....... 705

94. His execution, ........ ib.

95. Entry of the king and queen into Madrid, .... 706

96. Distracted and miserable state of Spain, .... 708

97. State of Portugal during this year. Royalist insurrection, . . 709

98. Royalist counter-revolution, . . . . . .710

99. Triumphant return of the Duke d'Angoulême to Paris, . . 711

100. Offer of assistance by Russia to Franco rejected, . . • 712

101-102. Views of Mr Canning in recognising the republies of South

America, ....... 713-715

103. Mr Canning did not give independence to South America, but only

acknowledged it, . . . . . .716

104. Recognition of the South American republies by Mr Canning, . 717

105. Effects of this measure on British interests, . . . . 718

106. M. de Chateaubriand's designs in regard to the South American states, 719

107. Speech of Mr Canning at Plymouth, ..... 720

108. The elections of 1824, and strength of tho Royalists, . . .721

109. Great effect which this had on the future destinies of France, . 722

110. Meeting of the Chambers, and measures announced in tho royal speech, 723

111. Law of septenniality: considerations in favour of it, ib.

112. Argument on the other side, ...... 724

113. Law for the reduction of interest of the national debt, . . 725

114. Which is passed by the Deputies, but thrown out by the Peers, . 726

115. Reflections ou this decision. Difference of tho English and French

funds, ........ 727

116. Splendid position of M. de Chateaubriand, .... ib.

117. His dismissal, and that of Marshal Victor, .... 728

118. Statisties of France in this year, . . . . . 729

119. Reign of Louis XVIII. draws to a close, .... ib.

120. His declining days, ....... 730

121. His great powers of conversation, . . . . . 731

122. His religious impressions in his last days, .... 732

123. His death, ........ ib.

124. Character of Louis XVIII., 733

125. His private qualities and weaknesses, ..... 734

126. Political inferences from the result of the Spanish revolution, . 735

127. Great merit of tho French expedition into Spain in 1823, . . 736

128. It had nearly established the throne of the Restoration, . . 737

129. The French invasion of Spain was justifiable, .... 738

130. Was the English intervention in behalf of South America justifiable 1 739

131. Its ultimate disastrous effects to England, . . . .740

HISTORY OF EUROPE.

CHAPTER VII.

SPAIN AND ITALY FROM THE PEACE OF 1814 TO THE • REVOLUTION OF 1820.

Differing from each other in climate, national char ter, and descent, there is a striking, it may be a port' tous, resemblance in their history and political destii: between Spain and Great Britain. Both were inhabi originally by a hardy race, divided into various tril which maintained an obstinate conflict with the invad< and were finally subdued only after nearly a centui harassing warfare with the Legions. Both, on the fall the Empire, were overrun by successive swarms of bar l ians, with whom they kept up for centuries an indoniita warfare, and from whose intermingled blood their desc dants have now sprung. The Visigoths to Spain w what the Anglo-Saxons were to Britain; and the Da in the one country came in place of the Moors in the otl The rocks of Asturias in the first were the refuge independence, as the mountains of Wales and the Gn pian Hills were in the last. Both were trained, in tl long-continued struggles, to the hardihood, daring,: perseverance requisite for the accomplishment of gi things in the scene of trouble. In both the elements freedom were laid broad and deep in this energetic:

VOL. II. A

Chap. intrepid spirit; and it was hard for long to say which

!_ was destined to be the ark of liberty for the world. The

1814, ardent disposition of both sought a vent in maritime adventure, the situation of both was eminently favourable for commercial pursuits, and both became great naval powers. Both founded colonial empires in various parts of the world, of surpassing magnitude and splendour, and both found for long in these colonies the surest foundations of their prosperity, the most prolific sources of their riches. When the colonies revolted from Spain in 1810, the trade, both export and import, which she maintained with them, was exactly equal to that which, thirty years afterwards, England carried on with its colonial dependencies. Happy if the parallels shall go no farther, and the future historian shall not have to point to the severance of her colonies as the commencement of ruin to . Great Britain, as the revolt of South America, beyond all question, has been to the Spanish monarchy.

Historians have repeated to satiety that the decline of The coio- Spain, which has now continued without interruption for not'aTource nearly two centuries, is to be ascribed to the drain which Mm tok" tnese great colonies proved upon the strength of the parent sp»in. state. They seemed to think that the mother country is like a vast reservoir filled with vigour, health, and strength, and that whatever of these was communicated to the colonial offshoots, was so much withdrawn from the parent state. There never was a more erroneous opinion. No country ever yet was weakened by colonial dependencies; their establishment, like the swarming of bees, is an indication of overflowing numbers and superabundant activity in the original hive. As their departure springs from past strength, so it averts future weakness. It saves the state from the worst of all evils—a redundant population constantly on the verge of sedition from suffering— and converts those who would be paupers or criminals at home, into active and useful members of society, who encourage the industry of the parent state as much by their consumption as they would have oppressed it by Chap. their poverty. VIL

Every emigrant who is now landed on the shores of 18UAustralia, converts a pauper, whose maintenance would colonics have cost Great Britain £14 a-year, into a consumer XSuo who purchases £8 yearly of its manufactures. Rome ^J!"*D' and Athens, so far from being weakened, were immeasurably strengthened by their colouies: those flourishing settlements which surrounded the Mediterranean Sea were the brilliant girdle which, as much as the arms of the Legions, contributed to the strength of the Empire; and England would never have emerged victorious from her immortal conflict for European freedom, if she had not found in her colonial trade the means of maintaining the contest, when shut out from the markets of the Continental states. If it were permitted to follow fauciful analogies between the body politic and the human frame, it would be safer to say that the prolific parent of many colonies is like the happy mother of a numerous offspring, who exhibits, even in mature years, no symptoms of decline, and preserves the freshness and charms of youth for a much longer period than she who has never undergone the healthful labours of parturition.

There is no reason, in the nature of things, why colonies should exhaust the mother country; on the contrary, Support the tendency is just the reverse. They take from the parent state what it is an advantage for it to lose, and give it m°th^rthe what it is beneficial for it to receive. They take off its countrysurplus hands and mouths, and thereby lighten the labour market, and give an impulse to the principle of population; while they provide the means of subsistence for those who remain at home, by opening a vast and rapidly increasing market for its manufactures. A colony for long is always agricultural or mining only. Manufactures, at least of the finer sort, can never spring up in it for a very long period. An old state, in which manufactures and the arts have long flourished, will nowhere

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