Chap. in the city had now regained the ascendancy, and dis^tT' possessed their own junta; the flag of truce was fired

l820- on, and the people seemed prepared for a desperate sept. 26. resistance. But it was seeming only. On the next day the Neapolitan forces succeeded in penetrating into the city by the royal park, and the Neapolitan flotilla in the roads drew near, and prepared to second Pepe by a general Sept. 27. bombardment. The most furious republicans, now convinced that further resistance was hopeless, and could end only in the destruction of themselves and their city, listened to terms of accommodation. Pepe humanely acceded to their offer of submission, and, to save the city from the horrors of an assault, withdrew his troops from the posts they had won within its walls. The populace, seeing the troops withdraw, ascribed it to fear, and recommenced hostilities; but the retribution was immediate and terrible. On the 27th the bombardment commenced, and with the most dreadful effect. The town was soon on fire in several places, and the infuriated mob, passing from one extreme to another, ere long craved peace in the most e387- abject terms. A capitulation was concluded on the 5th, iifsbl505-and General Pepe was put in possession of the forts. Ann. Re^.' The Neapolitan constitution was proclaimed, a new 242.' 'junta named, and the Prince of Palermo appointed to its head.1

Hitherto everything had succeeded to a wish with the Renewal of Neapolitans, but they soon found that great difficulties hostilities. remained behind. The question of separation was not yet decided; the second article of the capitulation had provided that that difficult matter should be decided by a majority of votes in the Sicilian parliament legally convoked. This article, as well it might, was extremely ill Oct . is. received at Naples; the capitulation was annulled, as having been entered into by General Pepe without any authority to leave the question of separation unsettled. He was dismissed from his command, which was conferred on General Colletta. He was soon reinforced by six

1 Colletta,

ii. 385,

thousand troops from Calabria, with the aid of which he Chap.

reduced Palermo to entire subjection, disarmed the in- VH'

habitants, and imposed on the city a heavy military con- mo' tribution, which had a surprising effect in cooling their revolutionary ardour. Hostilities immediately ceased through the whole island, and the Sicilians soon found, to iAnD.HiBt. their cost, that they had gained little by their change of j^;*05^6' masters, and that their revolutionary rulers at Naples Jj^jjTM:/ were more difficult to deal with than their former feeble 398,399. monarch had been.1

By the Spanish Constitution, now adopted as that of Naples, there was to be one deputy for every thirty Meeting of thousand inhabitants, which gave seventy-four deputies litan parfor Naples, and twenty-four for Sicily; the inhabitants of ocuT'' the former being 5,052,000, of the latter 1,681,000. The electors were anxiously adjured in a proclamation to choose wise and patriotic representatives—a vain recommendation in a country recently convulsed by the passions and torn by the desires of a revolution. The deputies were such as in these circumstances usually acquire an ascendancy— violent democrats, village attorneys, revolutionary leaders of the army, a few professors and literary men, and some renegade priests. The report of the Minister of Foreign Affairs announced that all the great powers had refused to recognise the revolutionary changes at Naples; that of the Minister of the Interior signalised the numerous abuses which had prevailed in the internal administration of the kingdom, and which it was proposed to remedy, and recommended the sale of a large part of the national domains to meet the deficiencies of the exchequer; that of the Minister at War, the measures which were in progress for providing for its external defence. This consisted in a regular army of 52,000 men, movable, natioffal „ Colletta guards 219,000 strong, and an immovable one of 400,000 Ih-mmb; men. But these forces existed on paper only, notwith- iii.6oo,507: standing all the efforts of the Carbonari;2 the recruiting i820,m went on extremely slowly; disorder and corruption per


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Chap. vaded every branch of the public administration; and, distrustful of all the vaunted means of national defence, all eyes were already turned to the congress of the allied powers at Troppau, where it was evident the real destiny of the revolution would be determined. ji? The Roman States were too near, and too closely conin«urre"c- nected with the Neapolitan, not to participate in their thTgaiiey- passions, and in some degree share their destinies. Discwftl"1 turbances accordingly took place at an early period in the Scpth4a' pontifical dominions; but they began in a very peculiar class, whose efforts for liberation proved of as little value as their assistance was discreditable to the liberal cause. On the night of the 4th September a revolt broke out in the great depot of galley-slaves at Civita Vecchia, where sixteen hundred convicts of the worst description were confined. At seven in the evening a low murmur was heard in the principal depot, and immediately a general insurrection commenced. The irons were broken, and by sheer strength and the weight of numbers the barriers were burst through, and the infuriated multitude rushed with frightful cries into the outer parts of the enclosure. The troops arrived, and the galley-slaves immediately invited them to fraternise with them, calling out "Long live the republic! Join with us, and to-morrow we shall establish a republic in Civita Vecchia, and all will be right." But the troops were not convinced that all would be right with the aid of such allies; they did their duty: several volleys fired at point-blank distance spread terror among their ranks, and at length, at seven next morning, the insurrection was suppressed, though not without considerable bloodshed. This outbreak was connected with a much more considerable conspiracy in , Ann Reg and Beneventum, which, although suppressed in

1820,243; the capital by the vigilance of the police, succeeded in

Colletta,ii. , r J „° . r, .' ,

396,400. the latter town, and for a time severed it trom the bcclesiastical States.1

A more serious insurrection soon after ensued in PiedMont, which, from its close vicinity to France, the long Chap. service of its troops with the armies of that power, and ^"'

the martial spirit of its inhabitants, has always been more 1821


swift to share in the revolutionary spirit, and more sturdy Commencein maintaining it, than any other of the Italian states, revoiutio'n8 Like Spain and Portugal, the desire for free and representative institutions had there come to animate the lI« breasts of the officers in the army, and nearly the whole of the educated and intelligent classes of the people. The Carbonari numbered not only the whole of the ardent and enthusiastic, but by far the greater part of the intelligence and patriotism in the state. Unhappily, their information and experience were not equal to their vigour and spirit, and by at once embracing the Spanish Constitution they entangled themselves in all the evils and difficulties with which that absurd and perilous system was environed. On the 11th January some young stu-jan.ii. dents appeared at the theatre of Andennes, in the district of Novarrais, wearing the red cap of liberty, and by the violence of their conduct occasioned a tumult, Jan. 12. which was only suppressed next day by four companies of the guards from Turin, which were marched from that capital under the command of its governor. But though suppressed on this occasion, the revolutionary spirit was far from being extinct, and it soon broke out under more serious circumstances, and in a far more influential class. In the end of February, on the representation of the Austrian minister that they were engaged in a conspiracy to chase the Imperialists from Italy, several noblemen, leaders of the liberal cause, were arrested in Piedmont, and conducted to the citadel of Finistrelles. }u«LRpTedThis was the signal for a general movement, which it TMTM£m appears was embraced by the highest officers in the army, and principal nobles in the state, to whose conspiracy de Santa for the establishment of a constitutional government the 24?Ann. Prince of Carignan, the heir-apparent to the throne, 335,'336. was no stranger.1 He at first engaged to co-operate in

Chap. their designs, but soon after, despairing of success, he drew back, and counselled the abandonment, or at least


postponement, of the undertaking. But the conspirators were too far advanced to recede, and the advance of the Austrians towards Naples convinced them that not a moment was to be lost if they were ever to strike a blow for the independence of Italy.

On the morning of the 4th March symptoms of revolt Revoit'in appeared in some regiments stationed on and near Verulli, MdsTuDrtoi* hut the conspirators failed in their object then, from the March 10 majority of the troops holding out for the royal cause. But on the 10th the constitution of Spain was openly proclaimed at Alessandria, by Count Parma and Colonel Regis, who permitted such of the troops as were opposed to the movement to return to their homes, which a great number of them, including nearly all the mountaineers from Savoy, accordingly did. With the aid of such as remained, however, and a body of ardent students, the leaders got possession of the citadel of that important fortress, and immediately hoisted the Italian tricolor flag—green, red, and blue. No sooner was the intelligence of this important success received in Turin than the whole Carbonari and conspirators were in motion. Cries of "Viva il Re!" and "Viva la Costituzione!" were heard on all sides from a motley crowd of soldiers and students who surrounded the royal troops, who were not permitted to act against them, and probably would not have done so if ordered. Emboldened by this inaction, and hearing every hour of some fresh insurrection of the troops in the March J2. vicinity, the conspirators, on the following day, ventured on still more decisive measures, which proved entirely successful. Captain Lesio, setting out earlyfrom Turin, raised the regiment of light-horse at Pignerol, who moved towards ,, „.. the heights of Cannagnuola, shouting "Death to the AusAn^Ke ^r'ians 1 Their arrival at Turin, joined to the alarming 1821,238! intelligence received of similar insurrections in other quarters, decided the governor of the capital, the Chevalier di

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