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Chap, oldest structures of the empire, is all copied from the __ Greek or Roman; it is the Parthenon of Athens, the wis. pantheon of Rome, at every step. In the Kremlin alone, and some of the oldest structures of Nijni and Great Novgorod, is to be seen the ancient and native emanations of Russian genius before it was crushed by the barbarism of the Tartars, or nipped in the bud by the imitative passion of Peter the Great. The eye of the traveller is fascinated by these long lines of pillared scenery interspersed with monuments and obelisks; but after a time it palls on the senses, from its very richness and uniformity: it is felt to be an exotic unsuited to the climate, and which cannot take root in the soil; and the imagination sighs for the original architecture of the English cathedrals and the Moorish Alhambra, which mark the nativeborn conceptions of the Gothic and Arabian conquerors of the world.

But if western Europe has little to fear from the Miiitare rivalry of Russian art or the flights of Russian genius, it Ru2. °f is otherwise with the imitation of the Military Art, which has been carried to the very highest point in the Muscovite armies. The army consisted in 1840 of 72 regiments of infantry, 24 of light cavalry, 90 batteries of foot and 12 of horse artillery. Each regiment consists of 7 battalions of 1000 men each ; so that the infantry alone, if complete, would contain above 500,000 men. The guards, which are composed of the elite of the whole male population of the empire, consist of 12 regiments of infantry, 12 of cavalry, 12 batteries of foot and 4 of horse artillery, which are always kept complete. Besides this, there are 24 regiments of heavy reserve cavalry, and 12 batteries of reserve horse-artillery, and the corps of the Caucasus, Orenburg, Siberia, Finland, and the interior, which contain 100 battalions of 1000 men each, 40 regiments of cavalry, and 36 batteries of cannon. Besides these immense forces, the emperor has at his disposal 164 regiments of Cossacks, each containing 800 warriors, of whom 56 come from the steppes of the Don, and are superior to any troops in the world for the service of Chap. light cavalry. If these immense forces were all complete, UI1'

theywouldcontain above 800,000 infantry,250,000 horses, 1816and 100,000 artillerymen. But the ranks are very far, indeed, from being complete; and in no country in the world is the difference so great between the numerical force of an army on paper and its effective muster in the field. The reason is, that numerous officers in every grade have an interest in representing the force as greater than it really is; as they draw pay and rations for the whole, and appropriate such as is allotted to the nonexisting to themselves. Still, after making every allowance for these great deficiencies, it is not going too far to assert that Russia, when her strength is fully called forth, could produce 400,000 infantry, 100,000 cavalry, and V^yTMeTMi! 50,000 artillerymen for service beyond her own frontier, M^teBmn, though the distances of the empire are so great that it Jj;*^. would require more than a year to bring even the half of .. this immense force to bear on any point in Europe or 156, 159.* Asia.1*

A very curious and interesting part of the institutions ^ of Russia is to be found in the Military Colonies, which The military are established in several of the southern provinces of theeoloDMa

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Chap. empire. They owe their origin to the Emperor AlexanYIII ' der, who, being struck with the protection which similar establishments on the frontiers of Transylvania had long afforded to the Austrians and Hungarians in warding off the predatory incursions of the Mussulman horse, resolved in 1817 to found colonies of the same sort in several parts of his dominions. The system was extended and improved, under the able guidance of General de Witt, in the southern provinces in 1821. Several divisions of veterans, regular cavalry, were colonised in this manner, and a floating population of seventy thousand wandering tribes settled on certain districts allotted to them. The principle of these establishments is, that an immense tract of arable and pasture land is divided among a certain number of leading colonists, who are married, and for the most part have families, each of whom holds his lands, like the military tenants of former days in Europe, under the obligation of maintaining constantly a horseman and horses completely equipped, and providing for his maintenance. In return, he is entitled to the labour of the cavalier, when not actually in the field. In addition to these horsemen, who are constantly ready for service, there are a much greater number of substitutes, or suppUans, as they are called, who also are trained to the use of arms, and being all expert horsemen, are ready at a moment's warning to take the principal's place if he is killed or disabled for active service. All the children of the colony are trained to military service, and are bound to serve, if required, twenty-two years, after which they obtain their discharge and a grant of land to themselves. The whole are subjected to the most rigorous military discipline, and regulated by a code of laws entirely for Bran'vi themselves. At first the children were brought up some4io,4ii; what after the Spartan fashion, being taken from their

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Voyages, i. parents at the early age of eight years, and bred excluSciiitaier. sively at the military schools ;1 but this was found to be attended with so many evils that the system was essentially modified by various regulations established by the Chap. Emperor Nicholas between 1829 and 1831. At present VI1L the military colonies form a sort of permanent canton- 1816, ment of a part of the army, and they can, at a moment's warning, furnish 100,000 soldiers, fully drilled and equipped, capable of being raised by the suppUans and principal colonists to 250,000 men.

The Cossacks, So well known during the war with Napoleon, form another sort of military colony on a still The c«grcater scale. Their lands are of immense extent, em- *<iek«' bracing fifty-seven thousand square geographical miles— about two-thirds of the entire area of Great Britain, and incomparably more level and fertile. They are all held under the obligation of furnishing, when required, the whole male population of the country capable of bearing arms for the service of the emperor. They constantly furnish 100,000 men, distributed in 164 regiments, to the imperial forces. So strong, however, is the military spirit among them, and so thoroughly are they all trained from infancy to the duties of horsemanship, that if summoned to his standard, they could easily furnish double this force, either for the defence of the country or the purposes of aggressive warfare. Glory, plunder, wine, and women, form irresistible attractions, which impel the entire nation into the career of conquest. It is their immense bodies of horse, more nearly resembling the hordes of Timour or Genghis Khan than the regular armies of western Europe, which constitute the real strength of the Czar; and as their predatory and roving habits never, Bremner decline, and cannot do so from the nature of the country J^jftj'; which they inhabit, while their numbers are constantly Enorowsity, and rapidly increasing, it is easy to foresee how formidable n, il'i they must ere long become to the liberties of the other "^o^ios! states of Christendom.1

What renders the Russian armies the more formidable is the extreme ability with which they are trained, disciplined, and commanded. Whatever may be thought of Chap. the inferiority, in an intellectual point of view, of a nation YI1I' where only 1 in 280 is at the entire schools of the state 1815, of any description, the same cannot be said of their miliThe ad'mir- tary training, which is conducted on the most approved UiMud^ system, and in the most efficient manner. All the imo?ti,earmy. provements in arras, tactics, accoutrements, evolutions, or discipline, which experience or science has suggested to the other nations of Europe, are, with the rapidity of the electric telegraph, transmitted to Russia, and taught in the military schools which train its youth for their duties in the field, or adopted in its vast arrays. The Russian army, accordingly, exhibits a combination of physical strength and intellectual power—of the energy of the desert and the resources of civilisation, of the unity of despotism and the vigour of democracy—which no other country in modern times can exhibit, and to find a parallel to which we must go back to the Roman legions in the days of Trajan or Severus. The ranks of the infantry are recruited by a compulsory levy, generally, in time of peace, of five in a thousand—of war, of two or three in a hundred; but the cavalry, in a country abounding so much in nomad tribes, and where, in many vast districts, the whole male population nearly live on horseback, is in great part made up by voluntary enrolment; and as the whole rising talent of the empire is drawn into the military or diplomatic lines, it may easily be conceived what a formidable body, under such direction, the military force of the empire must become. Every soldier is entitled to his discharge after twenty-two years' service in the line, or twenty in the guards; and he leaves the ranks a freeman, if before he was a serf—a privilege which goes far to diminish the hardship of the compulsory levy on the rural population. , Ma)te The weakness of the army consists in the want of inte?iT'4i3- 'n ^fe^o1" officers, which is as conspicuous in

Bremner,' general as the honour and patriotism of its generals and Schnitzler, commanders: the necessary consequence of the want of a class of gentry from which they can alone be drawn.1

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