Chap. as a harbinger of rest, and that was a double union of V11' the royal families of Spain and Portugal. Ferdinand,

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4.t who, since the loss of his young and captivating consort Double in 1808, had been a widower, now resolved to afford a of the royal chance for the continuance of the direct line of succesSpJlnuid' sion, by entering into a second marriage, and, by the sept.fet advice of his Council, he determined on making proposals to his niece, the Infanta Maria Isabel Francisca, second daughter of the King of Portugal. At the same time, proposals were made for an alliance between Don CarLos, the King's younger brother, and the heir-presumptive to the throne, for whom so adventurous a fate was reserved, and the Infanta Maria Francisca de Acis, third daughter of the same sovereign. Both proposals were accepted; and as the princesses were at Rio Janeiro, where the royal family of Portugal had been since their flight thither in 1808, when Portugal was first overrun by the French, the Duque del Infantado was sent with a splendid retinue to Cadiz, to receive the princesses on their landing from Brazil. The marriages were both celebrated with great pomp at Madrid on the 28th Sepsept. 28. tember; and on this occasion an amnesty, which professed to be general, was published. It contained, however, so many exceptions as practically left it in the power of Government to continue, with scarce any limitation, the oppression of the liberals, for it excluded all persons charged with the following crimes —" Lese majesty, divine and human treason, homicide of priests, i Decree blasphemy, coining false money, exporting prohibited J^fg-2m'o- ar^cles, resisting the officers of justice, and mal-adminniteu'r.oct. istration in the exercise of the royal powers." There Ann. Reg. were few crimes connected with the State which might i8il,, 13 , ^e o£ a littlc straining, be brought within

some one of these exceptions.1

An event connected with the Peninsula occurred in the close of the preceding year, and was heard of in Europe in this, strongly illustrative of the vast consequences which were to follow to the most distant parts of the Chap. earth from the events following on the French Revolu- YI1'

tion. On December 28, 1815, the Prince-Regent of 1817Portugal, who had never, since the migration of the royal creation of family, quitted the shores of Brazil, issued a decree, in d„mkofg which, after enumerating the vast extent and boundless capabilities of his dominions in the New World, and the 181sbenefits which would result from the entire union of the dominions of the house of Portugal in both hemispheres, he declared that the colony of Brazil should thenceforward be elevated to the Rank Of A Kingdom; and directed that, in future, Portugal, the two Algarves, and Brazil, shall form one united kingdom, under the title of the "United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the two Algarves." Thus was monarchy, for the first time, erected by the European race in the New World—an event of the more importance that the immense territories of the house of Braganza in the New World, embracing above four times the area of Old France, were placed alongside of the newly emancipated republics, broken off from the dominions of Spain in the same hemisphere; and thus an opportunity was afforded of demonstrating, by actual ^"g*' experiment, the comparative influence of the monarchical Mo-^ and republican forms of government on the welfare of the i«. i8'ic;' species under the climate of South America, and with the i8ic, ilf. Iberian or Celtic family of mankind.1

The year 1817 commenced with an insurrection of a more serious character than had yet occurred in the ImurrecPeninsula. Unlike the preceding, it began not with the Valencia, soldiers, but the citizens. A trifling tax on coals excited 1817.17* a tumult in Valencia on the 17th January, which ere long assumed the character of an insurrection. At first the populace were successful; and during the whole of the 17th the city was, with the exception of the barracks, iu their possession. They immediately proclaimed the Constitution of 1812; but their triumph was of short duration. General Elio, who commanded the garrison,

Chap. concentrated his forces; the troops continued faithful; V1L the respectable inhabitants remained in their houses, and 1817, took no part in the insurrection; and the populace, meeting with no other support than what they could derive from their own numbers, were at length defeated, but not before much blood had been shed, and General Elio himself wounded. He immediately published a severe decree, denouncing the penalty of death against all persons, except those privileged as cavaliers to carry arms, found with weapons in the dark, and authorising the patrol to fire upon them. This was soon followed by a March 2. decree prohibiting the importation of a great variety of books into Spain, among which the works of Voltaire, Gibbon, and Robertson, Benjamin Constant, and a great many others, are specially mentioned as "false in politics, and to the hierarchical order, subversive of the pMoniteur, power of the church, and tending to schism and religious 1817; Ann. toleration, and pernicious to the state." It was easy to liT.'ns.' see what influence had been predominant in the preparation of this decree.1

Ere long another conspiracy broke out in Barcelona of Abortive a very extensive character, in which Generals Lacy and S BarTM7 Milans, who had distinguished themselves so much in the death*"/ late war, were implicated. The object of the conspirators, ScyTM1 as of ^ ^e preceding ones, was the re-establishment of the Constitution of 1812, and the convoking of the Cortes. April 5. It was to have broken out on the night of April 5, and a great number of officers, besides a considerable part of the battalion of the light infantry of Tarragona, were engaged on the side of the conspirators. Castaflos the captain-general of the province, however, received intelliprocu^T' gence of the plot, and arrested Lacy and three hundred l^'iin^1 officers who were implicated in his designs. He was Ma"';*"' immediately tried by a court-martial, and sentenced to ,1,817i,'^?n- be shot.2 Being sent over, however, to Minorca, to have

Keg. 1817, . • • m m

119,120. the sentence carried into execution, as it was deemed unsafe to attempt it in Spain, he attempted, when on the escort of prisoners, to make his escape. The soiuiers

pursued him, and in endeavouring to defend himself he 1817was, fortunately for himself, accidentally killed.

A very important papal bull was issued in the same month, regarding the property of the church in Spain. Papal bull Such had become the penury of the royal treasury, in STcontfi. consequence of the loss of the South American colonies, fteSpanfsh and the cessation of industry in Spain during the dread- ^""jg ful war of which, for six years, it had been the theatre, that it had become absolutely necessary to have recourse to some extraordinary resources, and the church, as the body which was most tractable and capable of bearing such a burden, was selected to make up the deficiency. A negotiation in consequence was opened with the court of Rome, to which the necessity of the case was fully represented, and the consequence was, that on the 16th April a papal bull was issued, which, on the narrative of the "enormous expenses at which we have had the satisfaction of seeing an extremely glorious victory gained, as well for religion as the monarchy, authorised Ferdinand to exact annually, during six years, the sum of 30,000,000 reals (£300,000) from the estates of the church, as well regular as secular." This was an immense relief to the treasury, but, great as it appears, it was not more than sufficient to fill up the annual deficit which had been constantly \M°?i'5ur<

• i o , April 29,

increasing since the restoration. Such as it was, however, isi7; Ann. it led to incalculable calamities, both to the nation and Iaf,'i2i.' the monarchy.1

The King of Spain had certain claims on the part of the Infanta, Queen of Etruria, on the states of Parma, Treaty rePlacentia, Guastalla, which had been made the subject of Q^cngof1>0 anxious claim and negotiation at the Congress of Vienna Etrur;ain 1815, and subsequently with the allied powers. Such were the difficulties with which the question was involved that it led to a very protracted negotiation, which was not brought to a conclusion till this year, when

Chap. a treaty was concluded, by which, on the one hand, Spain vI1* was admitted into the European alliance and the treaties 1817, signed at the Congress of Vienna; and, on the other, the reversion of the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla was secured to the Infant Don Carlos Louis, the iuTf*' Infanta's son; and until that reversion opened, the states 18$; Mar- of Lucca were assigned to her maiesty the Queen of

tens' Sup. . , . . T <. i • i i

vii. 122; Etruna. It is in virtue of this treaty that the present 1817, llfl Duke of Parma, who married the daughter of the Duke de Berri, now enjoys the duchy of Parma.1

In the close of this year the negotiations, so long and Treaty'for anxiously conducted on the part of the British governtloVoTtta ment, for the suppression of the slave trade, were brought i)ec!,2oMie- to a successful issue with Spain. By it the King of mi- Spain prohibited, absolutely and immediately, all purchase of negroes in Africa north of the line, and denounced ten years' transportation against whoever should infringe the present decree. Leave was to be given, however, to purchase slaves south of the line, to such as might apply for a license to that effect, until the 30th May 1820, when it was to cease absolutely and for ever in the Spanish dominions in every part of the world. Foreign vessels trading to Spanish ports were to be subject to the same regulations, in every respect, as the Spanish. This decree was only extorted from Spain with great difficulty by the British government, by the engagement, as already mentioned, on their part, to pay »Ant.,* to Spain £400,000 for the abolition, on 20th Feb. 1818, iv. §45. which was punctually done.2 It is a singular circumj>cc!c?c!' stance, as creditable to the English as it was discreditable nftcur.Jat. to the Spanish government, that the one consented to PaJuDei). S1V0 and the other to receive so considerable a sum for an xxxvii. 07, act called for by every consideration of humanitv and

XXXv111. * * J

c»6; justice.3 It will appear in the sequel how entirely both i8i7; Anli. parties to this treaty departed from the object it had

Bcir 1817

123.' 'in view, and how the one, by its fiscal policy, restored the slave trade to a frightful extent, and the other, by

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