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VII.

1817.

Feb. 2,

concentrated his forces; the troops continued faithful ; -_ the respectable inhabitants remained in their houses, and

took no part in the insurrection; and the populace, meeting with no other support than what they could derive from their own numbers, were at length defeated, but not before much blood had been shed, and General Elio himself wounded. He immediately published a severe decree, denouncing the penalty of death against all persons, except those privileged as cavaliers to carry arms, found with weapons in the dark, and authorising the

patrol to fire upon them. This was soon followed by a March 2. decree prohibiting the importation of a great variety of

books into Spain, among which the works of Voltaire, Gibbon, and Robertson, Benjamin Constant, and a great many others, are specially mentioned as “ false in poli

tics, and to the hierarchical order, subversive of the Moniteur, power of the church, and tending to schism and religious 1817; 'Ann. toleration, and pernicious to the state.” It was easy to Reg. 1817, 117, 118.'' see what influence had been predominant in the prepara

tion of this decree. 1

Ere long another conspiracy broke out in Barcelona o 46. Abortive a very extensive character, in which Generals Lacy an

Milans, who had distinguished themselves so much in te

late war, were implicated. The object of the conspirat General as of all the preceding ones, was the re-establishmento r s Lacy.

Constitution of 1812, and the convoking of the Ca t ho April 5. It was to have broken out on the night of April 5, Vrte

great number of officers, besides a considerable and the battalion of the light infantry of Tarragon Dart engaged on the side of the conspirators. Cast

captain-general of the province, however, receiv ñ os 2 Castaños' proclames gence of the plot, and arrested Lacy and thro Vd in 110: An officers who were implicated in his designs ehuna. Moniteur, immediately tried by a court-martial, and May 7,

He 1817; Ann. be shot.2 Being sent over, however, to Min. entenced a Reg. 1817, 119, 120."

the sentence carried into execution, as in Orca, to his
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beach of that island, and attended only by a slender CHAP. escort of prisoners, to make his escape. The soldiers pursued him, and in endeavouring to defend himself he 1817. was, fortunately for himself, accidentally killed.

A very important papal bull was issued in the same month, regarding the property of the church in Spain. Papal bull Such had become the penury of the royal treasury, in the contri. consequence of the loss of the South American colonies, and the cessation of industry in Spain during the dread- Church

au, April 16. ful war of which, for six years, it had been the theatre, that it had become absolutely necessary to have recourse to some extraordinary resources, and the church, as the body which was most tractable and capable of bearing such a burden, was selected to make up the deficiency. A negotiation in consequence was opened with the court of Rome, to which the necessity of the case was fully represented, and the consequence was, that on the 16th April a papal bull was issued, which, on the narrative of the “enormous expenses at which we have had the satisfaction of seeing an extremely glorious victory gained, as well for religion as the monarchy, authorised Ferdinand to exact annually, during six years, the sum of 30,000,000 reals (£300,000) from the estates of the church, as well regular as secular.” This was an immense relief to the treasury, but, great as it appears, it was not more than sufficient to fill up the annual deficit which had been constantly Moniteur,

April 29, increasing since the restoration. Such as it was, however, 1817; Ann.

Reg. 1817, it led to incalculable calamities, both to the nation and 128, 121. the monarchy.

The King of Spain had certain claims on the part of the Infanta, Queen of Etruria, on the states of Parma, Treaty rePlacentia, Guastalla, which had been made the subject of Pueens of anxious claim and negotiation at the Congress of Vienna Etruria. in 1815, and subsequently with the allied powers. Such were the difficulties with which the question was involved that it led to a very protracted negotiation, which was not brought to a conclusion till this year, when

VII.

1817.

tens' Sup.

49.

slave trade Dec. 20, 1817.

CHAP. a treaty was concluded, by which, on the one hand, Spain

_ was admitted into the European alliance and the treaties

signed at the Congress of Vienna ; and, on the other, the reversion of the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guas

talla was secured to the Infant Don Carlos Louis, the Treaty, Infanta's son; and until that reversion opened, the states 1817; Mar of Lucca were assigned to her majesty the Queen of vii. 122" Etruria. It is in virtue of this treaty that the present 1817, 121. Duke of Parma, who married the daughter of the Duke

de Berri, now enjoys the duchy of Parma.1

In the close of this year the negotiations, so long and Treaty for anxiously conducted on the part of the British governthe limitation of the ment, for the suppression of the slave trade, were brought

e. to a successful issue with Spain. By it the King of

Spain prohibited, absolutely and immediately, all pur-
chase of negroes in Africa north of the line, and de-
nounced ten years' transportation against whoever should
infringe the present decree. Leave was to be given, how-
ever, to purchase slaves south of the line, to such as
might apply for a license to that effect, until the 30th
May 1820, when it was to cease absolutely and for ever
in the Spanish dominions in every part of the world
Foreign vessels trading to Spanish ports were to be su
ject to the same regulations, in every respect, as
Spanish. This decree was only extorted from Sa
with great difficulty by the British government,

b a in engagement, as already mentioned, on their part, the

to Spain £400,000 for the abolition, on 20th Feb. ? Ante, c. iv. § 45. which was punctually done. It is a singular Dec. 26, stance, as creditable to the English as it was disc) Vire niteur, Jan. to the Spanish government, that the one con "edit

Sim. give and the other to receive so considerable a Vente xxxvii. 67, act called for by every consideration of hun xxxviii.

lim for 996; De- justice. It will appear in the sequel how e Vanity 1817; Ann. parties to this treaty departed from the o tirelj bi 123. in view, and how the one, by its fiscal po

the slave trade to a frightful extent, and

У рау

* Decree,

1818,

1817: M

5, 1818: Parl. Deb.

ented to

Reg. 1817,

bject it had

Ulicy, restored stent, and the other, by

VII.

50.

state of

and

repeated evasions, continued to practise it until it arose to CHAP. the enormous amount of from fifty to seventy thousand slaves annually sent into Cuba alone.

1818. The internal situation of Spain had not sensibly ameliorated during the years the transactions of which have Miserable been now briefly enumerated. The Inquisition had Spain: its spread its leaden arms over the kingdom, and crushed army. any approach to independent thought : the severance of South America had dried up the principal sources of its material industry. The army, in great part without pay, always long in arrears, was with difficulty held to its standards, and the effective strength of the regiments exhibited a very different return from the rolls on paper. So great had the dilapidation of the military force of the kingdom become, from the penury of the Exchequer, and discontent and desertion of the troops, that, by a decree on June 1, its organisation was entirely changed, and June 1. they were divided into forty-seven regiments of common and light infantry, twenty-two regiments of cavalry, five thousand artillery, two regiments of guards : in all, seventy thousand men, to which were to be added fortythree regiments of provincial militia, which mustered about thirty thousand combatants. As to the navy, it had fallen into such a state of decay, that the power which, two hundred and thirty years before, had fitted out the invincible Armada, and planted such magnificent colonies in the Indies, and even in later times had all but rivalled the power of England upon the seas, was unable to fit out a fleet to transport the military succours which were so loudly called for to the New World. In this extremity the Government, with the money extorted the preceding year from the priests, bought a squadron of old worn-out lineof-battle ships from Russia, to which Alexander, out of pure generosity, added three frigates in a present. Such, however, was their state of decay that they took five 1 Ann. Hismonths to make the voyage from Cronstadt to Cadiz, 301, 302. and had to put into Plymouth to refit. At length the

VOL. II.

torique, i.

VII.

Extreme

CHAP. squadron arrived at Cadiz, on 21st February, and two

thousand men were embarked on board of it for Lima. 1818.

The extreme penury of the finances, in consequence of 51.

the loss of the mines of South America to the Governpenury of the finances ment, and its commerce to the country, was the cause of of Spain. Decree,

this woeful state of decrepitude a memorable proof of April 3,

the straits to which even the greatest naval power may 1818.

be reduced by the severance of its colonies. The Govern-
ment was overwhelmed with demands for payment of
debts by foreign countries, when by no possible contrivance
could they raise money to pay their own armaments. The
most pressing part of the debt consisted of 1,500,000,000
reals (£14,500,000), composed of vales, a species of
assignats issued in former times by the treasury. The
Cortes had provided for the payment of the interest of
this debt by assignation of the property of the Inquisi-
tion ; but as the restoration of the property of that body
left nothing for the creditors, the minister of finance, by
a decree on 3d April, reduced the debts to a third or
their amount, and made provision for the interest o

that third from the estates of the Church. By another March 30. decree, Corunna, Santander, Cadiz, and Alicante we

declared free ports—a vain attempt to restore the co r e merce to which the loss of the colonies had bron

total ruin. A manifesto was prepared, and suk Sept. 14. ted in the end of the year to the Congress of mit.

la Chapelle, to be addressed to the revolted ca i

which promised them an amnesty for the past, 1 Ann. Hist. otin i. 306, 310;

is: ation of abuses, and a certain degree of freedom Ann. Reg. 1818, 123,

Resmi merce. It was approved of and published, but 161. po avail with men resolutely set upon asserting rovej

dependence.1

An event occurred in the close of this in its final results, was attended with ma ear, w effects upon both kingdoms of the Peninsul Vt importants December, the young Queen Maria Isah la. On arrived from Brazil in the autumn of 181

Aix Slonies, reformof com

Śtheir in

Sella, who had utumn of 1017, to share the

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