ment. He died with the courage which had marked his Chap. life, firm in his religious and political principles, and X1' praying for the forgiveness of his murderers. 1822

Meanwhile, the civil war in the northern provinces 73 assumed a more regular and systematic aspect, by the Civil war in solemn installation of a regency at Seo d'Urgel on the provinces. 14th September, consisting of the Archbishop of Tarra-Aug'14. gona and the Baron d'Erolles, which appointed ministers to all the offices of state, and professed to administer the government of the state in the name of Ferdinand VII. during his captivity. It soon found itself at the head of an imposing force: a considerable park of field artillery had been collected, uniforms and arms in great quantities purchased, officers for a powerful army had repaired to the royal standard, and twenty thousand men were enrolled under their banners. No less than four hundred and fifty towns and villages in the northern provinces had overturned the pillar of the constitution. Already, on the 23d July, Mequinenza had been carried, July 23. and the garrison, four hundred strong, massacred with savage cruelty, in revenge for the slaughter at Cervera. Lerida and Vich were threatened, and the whole of Catalonia, with the exception of the fortresses, had fallen into the hands of the Royalists. In Navarre, Quesada had been defeated by Lopez-Bafios, who surprised hisJoiys. troops by a nocturnal attack; but he retreated to Roncesvalles, where his dispersed men rejoined his standard; reinforcements poured in from Biscay, and he was soon in a situation to resume the offensive, and establish himself in a fortified camp at Irati, where he maintained himself during the whole remainder of the campaign. The regency issued proclamations in the name of the iAnD Hist king, itf which they declared null all his acts since An4n65^66; he had been constrained to accept the Constitution ofipv4^

\1 artltf line

1812, called on the troops to abandon the standard 44s, 446.' of treason,1 and engaged to establish a constitutional Vol. 11. 2 Q

Chap. monarchy based on the ancient laws and customs of the X1, state.*

1822. -jhe government at Madrid was seriously alarmed at Vigorous these successes of the Royalists in the north; the estabtWvo'n- lishment of a regular government in the name of the veramerftT king at Seo d'Urgel, in particular, struck them with consternation. They acted with vigour to make head against the danger. Mina, appointed captain-general of the seventh military division, which comprehended the whole of Catalonia and part of Arragon, repaired to his post in the beginning of September, and having drawn together a considerable force at Lerida, advanced towards Cervera on the 7th September. It was high time he should do so, for the Constitutional forces had recently before been defeated in an attempt upon Seo d'Urgel Ang. I0- by the Baron d'Erolles, and driven back with great loss into Lerida. The Trappist, who had received orders to penetrate into Navarre in order to effect a junction with Aug. 19. Quesada, after sustaining a severe check on the 19th from Zarco del Vallc, had succeeded in rallying his troops in Aug. 23. the mountains, and joined Quesada on the 23d. Their united force defeated a division of the enemy at Bena^AnnHut Yarre, commanded by Tabuenca, who was shot in cold Martfg\,ac9; ^lood. From thence they proceeded against Jaca, an i.447; Ann. important fortress on the frontier commanding one of the Reg. 1822, cyef passes mto France" but they failed in the attempt,

and retired to the mountains.1

These alternate victories and defeats, in which success

* Tho proclamation of the Baron d'Erolles bore: "Wc, too, wish for a constitution, a fixed law to govern the state ; but we do not wish it to serve as a pretext for license, or to take crime for its ally. After tbe example of their ancestors, the people, legally assembled, shall enact laws adapted to their manners and to the times in which they live. Tho Spanish name shall-recover its ancient glory, and wo shall live, not the vile slaves of factious anarchists, but subject to the laws which wo ourselves shall have established. The king, the father of his people, will swear as formerly to the maintenance of our liberties and privileges, and wo shall thus have him legally bound by his oath."—Proclamation of Baron d'Erollet, l"8th August 1822 ; Ann. Reg. 1822, p. 249.

•was nearly equally balanced between the contending Chap. parties, and cruelty was unhappily practised alike by Xl'

both, determined nothing. The arrival of Mina, how- 1®a ever, speedily altered the face of affairs, and, combined capture of with the destruction of the royal guard at Madrid, and lit, and the general establishment of the most violent revolutionary damnum" authorities in all parts of the country where the Royalistsof Mm*' were not in force, caused the balance to incline decisively to the Liberal side. He first laid siege to Castelfollit, a considerable town on the river Bregas, which he took after a siege of six days. Five hundred of the garrison Oct. 24. escaped before the assault; the rest were put to the sword after having surrendered. The town was sacked, burned, and totally destroyed. This was done, although Mina himself, in a proclamation after the assault, said, i^b^Tf" "The defence had been long, firm, and obstinate; the "44^449. garrison had performed prodigies of valour, and acts of £n4n6'9f Meheroism equal to the most noble which history has re- g"jjJJ[d°l corded." This frightful massacre diffused the utmost Mina, m. consternation in Catalonia, which was not a little increased o'ct. 25. by a proclamation issued immediately after,1 * in which

* "1. Every town or village which shall yield to a band of rebels, amounting in number to less than one-third of its population, shall be sacked and burnt.

"2. Every town or village which shall surrender to a band of rebels, greater in number than one-third of the inhabitants, and the greater part of which inhabitants shall join the insurgents, shall also be sacked and burnt.

"3. Every town or village which shall furnish succour or the means of subsistence to rebels of any kind, who do not present themselves in a force equal to a third of the inhabitants, shall pay a contribution of one thousand Catalonian livres, and the members of the municipality shall be shot.

"i. Every detached house in the country, or in any town or village which may be abandoned on the approach of the Constitutional troops, shall be sacked, pulled down, or burnt.

"5. The municipal councillors, magistrates, and cures, who shall, being within three hours' march of my headquarters, neglect to send me daily information of the movements of the rebels, shall bo subjected to a pecuniary contribution; and if serious disadvantage shall arise from the neglect of this duty, they shall be shot.

"6. Every soldier from the rebel ranks who shall present himself before me, or one of my generals of division, before 20th November next, shall be pardoned. "Mina." —Annual Rtgitter, 1822, p. 251.

Chap. Mina threatened the same fate to all who should still XL resist the Liberal forces, offering a free pardon to such as

im- should desert with their arms before the 20th of November. The cruel resolution to put all to the sword who were found in arms contending against the Liberal forces, was too faithfully executed. All, whether monks, priests, peasants, or soldiers, were shot in cold blood, after having surrendered.

Upon receiving intelligence of the fall of Castelfollit, Continued the Baron d'Erolles hastened to unite himself to the thHtoyJ- remains of the garrison, with five thousand men whom he A&t'ofthe nad collected in the mountains. Mina advanced to meet frlm iJr- ^im' opposite forces met between Tora and Sanchaga, goi- and the Royalists were surprised and totally defeated. From thence Mina advanced to Balaguer, and its garrison, one thousand strong, fearing the fate of that of Nov. 3. Castelfollit, evacuated the place, and withdrew to the Oct . 27. mountains on his approach. Quesada, a few days before, had been worsted in an encounter with Espinoza in Navarre, his corps, three thousand five hundred strong, dispersed in the mountains, and he himself obliged to Oct. 28. take refuge in Bayonne. In Old Castile the curate Merino had about the same time been defeated, and his band dispersed near Lerma. The Royalist cause seemed everywhere desperate, and the regency at Urgel, despairing of being able to maintain their ground in Spain, Nov. I0- had evacuated that town, and taken refuge in Puycerda, close to the French frontier. The Trappist, after vainly endeavouring to make head against greatly superior Nov! 28. forces, now concentrated against him in Catalonia, had '^""•Hirt. been obliged also to take refuge within the French

An?2 R«|. frontier, and had repaired to Toulouse, where he was the 253jMem'o- object of almost superstitious veneration and dread ;1 and E"ozd-y- the Baron d'Erolles himself, closely followed by Mina, '2vfe.'1'' was obliged to accept battle from his indefatigable pursuer, and being defeated, and his corps dispersed, had also found an asylum within the friendly lines of France, Chap. The sole strongholds now remaining to the Royalists in XI' the north of Spain, in the end of November, were the 1822> forts of Urgel and Mequinenza, which were immediately invested by Mina; and although the guerilla contest still continued in the mountains, everything like regular warfare was at an end throughout the Peninsula.

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