Chap. nations, or the ability of the Northern powers to withXIL stand the advances of revolution supported by the united 1822. strength of France and England? These considerations were so obvious, that they forced themselves on every mind; and in order to avert the danger, a congress was resolved on, and Verona fixed on as the place of its assemblage.

^ It was originally intended that Lord Londonderry, Members then Foreign Minister, should himself have proceeded to grew* here" this important Congress ; but his unhappy death rendered this impossible, and the Duke of Wellington was appointed to go in his stead. It was thought with justice that England, in an assembly where the leading object of deliberation would be the French intervention in Spain, could not be so appropriately or efficiently represented as by the illustrious warrior who had effected its liberation from the thraldom of Napoleon. He was accompanied by Lord Strangford, the English ambassador at Constantinople, the present Marquis of Londonderry, and Lord Burghersh. France was represented by her Foreign Ministers, M. de Montmorency, M. de la Ferronnay, who was highly esteemed by the Emperor Alexander, at whose court he was ambassador, and M. de Chateaubriand, who was admired by all the world, and who, at his own request, had left the situation of ambassador at London to share in the excitement and deliberation of the Congress. From his known semi-liberal opinions, as well as his great reputation, he was selected to be in some degree a check on M. de Montmorency, who was the representative of the extreme Royalists in France, and might, it was feared, unnecessarily precipitate hostilities. The Emperor Alexander was there in person, accompanied by Nesselrode, M. de Takicheff, M. de Strogouoff, his ambassadors at Vienna and Constantinople, and Count Pozzo di Borgo. Capo d'Istria, on account of his known interest in the Greek insurrection, was absent. Metternich, who soon became the soul of the negotiations,

was there on the part of Austria, with Count Lebzeltern, Chap. the ambassador at St Petersburg; and Prussia was x"'

represented by its veteran diplomatists, Prince Harden- 1822, berg and Count Bernstorff. Florence was at first 1 cap. vii. thought of as the place of meeting; but at the request L^.3^.' of the Emperor Alexander it was exchanged for Verona, ?t^J on account of the latter city being a sort of midway chatea'ustation between ©pain and Greece, the two countries grade vewhich it was foreseen would principally occupy the atten- sa*'1'17, tion of the Congress.1

Verona, a city celebrated alike in ancient and modern times, is situated at the foot of the Alps, at the place Description where the Adige, after forcing its way through the defileof Veronaof Chiusa, immortalised by Dante, first emerges into the smiling plain of Lombardy. It is chiefly known to travellers from its noble amphitheatre, second only to the Coliseum in solidity and grandeur, and the interior of which is still as perfect as when it was filled with the admiring subjects of the Roman emperors. Its situation, at the entrance of the great defile which leads from Germany into Italy, has rendered it the scene since th&t time of many memorable events, when rival generals contended for the mastery of the Empire, and the Gothic hordes descended from the north to slake their thirst for spoil with the riches of the fairest part of Europe. The great contest between Otho and Vitellius, which Tacitus has immortalised,2 was decided under its • TacitTM, walls; the hordes of Alaric, the legions of Theodoric, 341." "*' defiled through its gates; and it was from thence that Napoleon set out at the head of the redoubtable grenadiers who decided the terrible strife between France and Austria on the dykes of Areola. Nor is the charm of imagination wanting to complete the interest of these historic recollections, for it contains the tomb of Juliet, and has been immortalised by the genius of Shakspeare.*

* See " The Tomb in Verona," a fragment, but one of the most interesting of the many interesting monuments of Sir E. B. Lytton's genius. VOL. II. 2 R

Chap. The modern city presents an interesting assemblage of X11' the relics of ancient and modern times; for if the stately

182a- remains of its amphitheatre carry us back to the days of the Roman emperors, its fortified bridges, curious arches, and castellated towers, remind us not less forcibly of the times of Gothic strife; while its spacious squares, elegant piazzas, and decorated theatres, bespeak the riches oblation, and luxury which have grown up with the peace of modern society.1

Before going to Verona, M. de Montmorency repaired vieis'of to Vienna, where he had several confidential interviews rentiers with M. de Metternich. Their views were entirely in ingof thT umson , and as ^ TM anticipated that the intentions of congress, the cabinet of Berlin would be mainly influenced by those of the Emperor Alexander, who was known to have the utmost dread of the military revolts of Southern Europe, it was with reason expected that the resolutions of the assembled powers would be all but unanimous. England, indeed, it was well known, would be strongly opposed to any armed intervention of France in the Peninsula; but, oppressed as she was with debt, and absorbed in pacific objects, it was not anticipated that she would draw the sword in its behalf, in opposition to the declared resolution of all the great powers on the Continent; and the extreme division of opinion in Spain and Portugal themselves, on the subject of the revolution, encouraged the hope that their governments would fall to the ground of themselves, without the necessity of military operations. Yet, notwithstanding the favourable circumstances which * c»p. vii. augured so well for vigorous measures, the Cabinet of 373,376; Louis XVIII. was much divided on the subject. The

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L°m4Tr: ° himself, with M. de Villele, his Prime Minister, 96,99.' strongly inclined to a pacific policy, and deprecated war as a last resource to be avoided as long as possible.2

Verona exhibited, when the Congress opened within its walls, even more than the usual union of rank, genius, celebrity, and beauty, which are usually attracted by such assemblages. The Empress of Austria was present, the ex- Chap Empress Marie-Louise was there, and enjoyed the happi

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ness of being again united to her august family ; but the brilliant dream of her life had already passed away, and Brilliant the widow of Napoleon had sunk into the obscure wife of ofp^ceuea her own chamberlain. The Queen of Sardinia, with the tfetatveprincesses her daughters, the princesses of Tuscany, Mo-romu dena, and several of the German powers, embellished the saloons by their beauty, or adorned them by their charms. Never had any town in Italy exhibited such a combination of everything that could distract the thoughts of the diplomatists, or dazzle the eyes of the multitude. The principal actors and actresses from Paris and Vienna had arrived, and added by their talents to the general enchantment; splendid balls succeeded each other in rapid succession, intermingled with concerts, in which the genius of Rossini shone forth with the highest lustre. In the midst of all this pomp and splendour, the business of diplomacy proceeded abreast of that of amusement; the ambassadors were as much occupied as the chamberlains; and a hidden but most formidable power—that of the

Lac. lii,

Jesuits, and the extreme religious party—carried on a 408,4ii; series of intrigues destined to produce the most important 37?* 375. results.1

The first matter brought under the consideration of


the Congress was the insurrection in Greece, and the com- Treaty for plicated relations of Russia and the Porte; but they coition of must be reserved for a subsequent chapter, when that fnddNa°pies. important subject will be fully discussed. The state of {^ju* Piedmont next came under discussion, and as it presented much fewer difficulties, it was soon adjusted. The King of Sardinia declared that the time had now arrived when the state of his dominions was so satisfactory that he could dispense with the presence and protection of the auxiliary Austrian force. The allied sovereigns acceded to his request for its removal, and a treaty was in consequence concluded, by which it was stipulated that the

Chap. Austrian troops should begin to evacuate his territories



1 Treaty, Dec . 14,

on the 31st December, and that the evacuation should be completed by the delivery of the fortress of Alessandria on the 30th September 1823. By a separate convention, ii - Ann concmded at the same time, itwas agreed that the auxiliary Hist.'v. 707; Austrian force which occupied Naples and Sicily, and which si&,vii. was supported entirely at the cost of their inhabitants, should be reduced by seventeen thousand men.1

A strenuous and most praiseworthy attempt was made Resolution by the Duke of Wellington, underMrCanning'sinstructions, gress re- to procure some resolution from the allied powers against fwtnde! tne slave-trade. He stated, in his note on this subject, that of the eight powers who, in 1815, had signed a declaration against that atrocious traffic, and expressed a desire to "put a period to a scourge which had so long desolated Africa, disgraced Europe, and afflicted humanity," seven had passed laws with the design of prohibiting their subjects entirely from engaging in it; but Portugal and Brazil continued to carry it on to an unprecedented extent. To such a length was this trade now pushed, that during seven months of the year 1821 above 38,000 human beings had been torn from the coast of Africa, and thrown into hopeless and irremediable slavery; and from the month of July 1820 to that of October 1821, no less than 332 vessels had entered the rivers of Africa, to the north of the equator, to buy slaves, each of 'which could carry 500 or 600 slaves, which would, if they were * welling- a^ filkd. imply a transportation of nearly 200,000 human Nov 24°te' Dem§3, Great part of this detestable traffic was stated 1822; Re- to be carried on under the French flag.2 Notwithstaudchauau- ing these appalling facts, which could neither be denied No" 26, nor controverted, the resistance on the part of the French MkrtoniT government to any decisive measure which might exclude de«Con- them from a share of this lucrative commerce was so

gres, Nov.

28, i822i great, that all that Great Britain could obtain from the

Ann. Hiet. i i • o i /•

V. 700,707. Congress was a vague declaration from the five great powers, "that they have never ceased, and will never

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