connived at by the American government, into the pro- Chap. vince of Texas. At length, however, these difficulties IL were adjusted, and the cession took place. Thus while 1819, Spain, in the last stage of decreptitude, M'as losing some of its colonies by domestic revolt, and others by sales to foreign states, the great and rising republic of America was acquiring the fragments of its once boundless dominions, and spreading its mighty arms into farther provinces, the scene of war and appropriation in future times. One \^"^J' of the most interesting things in history is the unbroken ^e9j0Mes" succession of events which obtains in human affairs, and Congress,

Dec 7,

the manner in which the occurrences, apparently trivial, i»i9; Ann. of one age, are linked in indissoluble connection with 597, m. changes the most important in another.1

Anxious, if possible, to continue the direct line of sue- g3 cession, the king, after the death of his former queen, did Marriage of not long remain a widower. On 12th of August aproclama- Aug"°f.' tion announced to the astonished inhabitants of Madrid that the king had solicited in marriage the hand of the Princess Maria Josephine Amelia, niece of the Elector of Saxony, and been accepted. The marriage was solemnised by proxy at Dresden on the same day, and the young queen set out immediately for Spain. She arrived at the Bidassoa on 2d October, and at Madrid on the 19 th of the same month, when she made her public entry into Madrid on the day following, amidst the discharges of artillery, rolling of drums, clang of trumpets, and every demonstration of public joy. But it was of bad augury for the married couple that the very day before an edict Oct. 19. had been published, denouncing the penalty of death against any one coming in from the infected districts in the south. An amnesty was published on occasion of the.. „

, . . , i 1 1, "Ann. Hut

marriage; but as, like the former, it excluded all persons ".395,396; charged with political offences, it had no effect in allaying lew, lsf! the anxiety of the public mind.2

But the time had now arrived when an entire revolution was to take place in the affairs of the Peninsula, and

Chap. those changes were to commence which have changed tbe V11 ' dynasty on the throne, altered the constitution of the

im- country, and finally severed her American colonies from Revolution Spain. The malcontents in the army, so far from being by^Riego3 deterred by the manner in which the former conspiracy "J^o1' had been baffled by the double and treacherous dealing of the Conde d'Abisbal, continued their designs, and, distrusting now the chiefs of the army, chose their leaders among the subordinate officers. Everything was speedily arranged, and with the concurrence of nearly the whole officers of the army. The day of rising was repeatedly adjourned, and at length definitively fixed for the 1st January 1820. At its head was Riego, whose great achievements and melancholy fate have rendered his name imperishable in history.* On that day he assembled a battalion in the village of Las Cabezas where it was quartered, harangued it, proclaimed amidst loud shouts the Constitution of 1812, and marching on Arcos, where the headquarters were established, disarmed and made prisoners General Calderon and his whole staff; and then, moving upon San Fernando, effected a junction with Quiroga, !sf»rt'p,»<:. who was at the head of another battalion also in revolt.

i. loo; Ann.

H^Hi. The two chiefs, emboldened by their success, and having Ann. Reg. hitherto experienced no resistance, advanced to the gates

| {{")(} »»f, *

22a'" ' of Cadiz, within the walls of which they had numerous partisans,1 upon whom they reckoned for co-operation

* * Raphael y Nunez del Riego was born in 1785 at Tuna, a villago of Asturias. His father, a Hidalgo without fortune, placed him in the Gardes-du-Corps, which, over since the scandalous elevation of the Prince of Peace, by the favour of the Queen, from its ranks, had been considered as the surest road to fortune in Spain. He was in that corps on occasion of the French invasion of that country in 1808; and when it was disbanded by the seizure of the royal family, he entered a guerilla band, and was afterwards promoted to the rank of an officer in the regiment of Asturias. He was ere long made prisoner, and employed the years of his captivity in France in completing his education, which he did chiefly by reading tho works of a liberal tendency in that country. On the peace of 1814 he was liberated, returned to Madrid, and received the appointment of Lieut.-Colonel in tho 2d battalion of the Regiment of Asturias. That regiment formed part of the army under the Conde d'Abisbal, destined to act against South America; and it was thus that Riego was brought to destruction and ruin.''—Biographie Univertelle, lxxix. 114,115 (rieoo).

and admission within it. But here they experienced a Chap. check. The gates remained closed against them—the TI1, governor of the fortress denounced them as rebels—the 1820expected co-operation from within did not make its appearance, and the two chiefs were obliged to remain encamped outside, surrounded with all the precautions of a hostile enemy.

The intelligence of this revolt excited the greatest alarm ^ at Madrid, ami the Government at first deemed their Vigorous cause hopeless. The next day, however, brought more Sorted* consoling accounts—that Cadiz remained faithful, and ^"gent's? a majority of the troops might still be relied on to act against the insurgents. Recovering from their panic, the Government took the most vigorous measures to crush the insurrection. General Freyre was despatched from Madrid at the head of thirteen thousand men hastily collected from all quarters, upon whom it was thought reliance could be placed, and he rapidly reached the Isle of Leon, where the insurgent troops, to the number of ten thousand, lay intrenched. A part of them, however, joined the insurgents, the force of whom was thus raised to ten thousand men. By the approach of the royalist army, however, they found themselves in a very critical situation, placed between the fortress of Cadiz on the one side and the troops from Madrid on the other, and in a manner besieged themselves in the lines of the besiegers. J^jjJ'^.' They published proclamations and addresses in profusion," Annalist.' but without obtaining any material accession of strength Ann. R^j* beyond what had at first joined them ;l and the defection 223?'' and disquietude began to creep over them which invari

* "Notre Espagne touchait a sa destruction, ct votro ruinc aurait entralnfi celle de la Patrie: vous ctioz destines 4 la mort, plutot pour delivrer Io Gouverncment de l'effroi que votre courage lui impose, que pour faire la conquete des colonies, devenue impossible. En attendant vos families rcstaient dans l'esclavage le plus honteuz, sous un Qouvemement arbitraire ct tyrannique, qui dispose a son gre des proprietes, dc l'oxistence, et de la liberie des malheuroux Espaguols. Ce Qouvemement devait detruire la nation, et finir par se dt?truire lui-meme ; il n'est pas possible de la souflrir plus longtemps.—Violent et faible a la fois, il no peut inapircr que l'indignation ou lo mepris; et pour que la

Chap. ably pervade an insurgent array when decisive success VI1' does not at once crown their efforts.

1820. Unable to endure this protracted state of suspense, and Capture of fearful of its effect on the minds of the soldiers, Riego lndeTMJ!edh directed an attack on the arsenal of the Caraccas, an imK°egofinto portant station on an island in the bay of Cadiz, which the inte- was taken by a detachment under the command of Quiroga.


Jan. 12. By this success, a large quantity of arms and ammunition fell into their hands, as well as a seventy-four gun-ship laden with powder; and they rescued from the dungeons of that place a number of liberals in confinement. Several attacks were afterwards made on the dykes which led from the opposite sides of the bay to Cadiz, but they all failed before the formidable fortifications by which they were defended; and though several emeutes were attempted in the fortress, they all failed of success. Meanwhile Freyre's troops were drawn round them on the outside, and effectually cut them off from all communication with the mainland of Andalusia; and the troops became discouraged from a perception of their isolated position, and the long inactivity to which they had been exposed. To relieve it, and endeavour to rouse the population in their rear, Quiroga, who had been invested with the supreme command, detached Riego with a movable column of fifteen hundred men into the interior of the proJan. 27. vince. They set out on 27th January, and without difficulty passed the river near Chictana, and reached Algesiraz Jan. 29. in safety, where they proclaimed the constitution amidst the loud acclamations of a prodigious concourse of inhabitants. After remaining five days, however, in that town,

Patric soit houreuse, le Gouvernement doit inspirer la eonfiance, 1'amour, et lo respect. Soldats! nous allona employer pour notre bien, et pour celui do nos frires, los armes qui ont assure l'indcpendance do la nation contre le pouvoir do Buenaparto: 1'entroprise est facile, et glorieuse! Existe-t-il un soldat Espagnol qui puisse s'y opposer 1 Non! dans lea rangs memo de ceux que le Gouvernement s'efforce de raasembler, vous trouverez des frères qui s'uniront a vous; ot si quelques-uns assez vils osaient tourner leurs armes contre vous, qu'ils périssent comme des satellites de la tyrannic, indignes du nom d'Espagnols."— Antonio Quiroga, Qinfral-en-chef de VArmte Nationale, 6 Jan. 1820. Annuairc Hutorique, iii. 390, 391.

he found that shouts and huzzas were all that the in- Chap. habitants were disposed to afford; and leaving their

inhospitable streets, he directed his march to Malaga, 182°■which he reached, after several combats, and entered on the 18th February, and immediately proclaimed the con- aJrE^ stitution. But although his little corps had been received R\e°° with acclamations wherever he went, it had met with no??'.B,io«:


real assistance: the people cheered, but did not join i18. us; tnem; and, to use the words of Kiegos aide-de-camp, m.396,397. "All applauded: none followed them."1

Meanwhile his associate, Quiroga, was the victim of the most cruel anxieties. Weakened by the detachment its defeat of the force under Riego, and besieged in his intrenched andfailure' camp before Cadiz, he daily found his situation more critical, and his soldiers evinced unequivocal symptoms of discouragement from the inactivity in which they had been retained since their revolt, and the want of any succour from the troops with which they were surrounded. He sent, in consequence, orders to Riego to return to the lines in the island of Leon, but it had become no longer possible for him to do so. Riego was closely followed by a light column under the orders of O'Donnell; and finding that the population of the country were not inclined to join him, and that his corps was daily diminishing by desertion, he evacuated Malaga, and bent his steps towards the Cordilleras, with a view to throwing him- March 11. self into the Sierra-Morena. He crossed the Guadalquiver by the bridge of Cordova, and directing his steps 45, towards the hills, at length reached Bien-Venida on the unifixfix 11th March with only three hundred followers, destitute y?s of everything, and in the last stage of exhaustion and 399/400. discouragement.2

The intelligence of the disasters of Riego, which reached ^ the Isle of Leon in spite of all the precautions which the Perilous generals of the revolutionary army there could take to Ijuirog" °„ intercept it, completed the discouragement of the troops ^al'.e of of the revolutionary army there assembled. Mutually

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