forced contributions from the whole merchants and opulent Chap. inhabitants of the place, without excepting the English, XIL whom he imprisoned, transported, and shot without I828, mercy, if they withstood his demands. The loud complaints which they made throughout all Europe went far to open the eyes of the people of England to the real tendency of the Spanish revolution. On the 3d Sep- Sept. 3. tember he set out from Malaga at the head of two thousand five hundred men, carrying with him the whole plate of the churches and of all the respectable inhabitants in the place, and made for the mountains, with the view of joining the remains of the corps of General Ballasteros, which he effected a few days after. He was Sept. 10. closely followed by Generals Bonnemaine and Loverdi, whom Molitor had detached from Granada in pursuit. Though the troops of Ballasteros had capitulated, and passed over to the Royalist side, yet they were unable to stand the sight of their old ensigns and colours, and, like the soldiers of Napoleon at the sight of the imperial eagles, they speedily fraternised with their old comrades. Cries of " Viva el Union! Viva Riego! Viva la Constitucion!" were heard on all sides, and Ballasteros himself, carried away by the torrent, found himself in Riego's arms. Concord seemed to be established between the chiefs, and they dined together, apparently in perfect amity; but in reality the seeds of distrust were irrevocably sown between them. Ballasteros quietly gave orders to his troops to separate from those of Riego: the latter, penetrating his designs, made the former a prisoner, but was compelled to release him by his officers. Discord having now succeeded to the temporary burst of unanimity, the two armies were separated, and the greater part of Riego's two best regiments deserted in the night, and joined Ballasteros' troops, The expedition had entirely failed, and, 1Ann Q. instead of raising the country in the rear of the French £.454,456; army before Cadiz, nothing remained to Riego but to 253,255. seek by hill-paths to effect a junction with Mina,1 who

Chap. still maintained a desultory warfare in the mountains or xu* Catalonia.

1823. Ije sej. ou(. accordingly with two thousand men; but Defeat and destitute of everything, and unable to convey their heavy 5uegoreof spoil with them, the march proved nothing but a successept. 13. sion of disasters. Bonnemaine, who closely followed his footsteps with a light French division, camo up with him on the heights near Jaen, and after a short action totally defeated him, with the loss of five hundred of his sept. 14. best troops. The day following he was again assailed with such vigour that his troops, no longer making even a show of resistance, dispersed on all sides, leaving their chief himself attended only by a few followers, who still adhered with honourable fidelity to his desperate fortunes. Riego himself was wounded, and in that pitiable state fled, accompanied only by three officers, towards the Sierra-Morena. Exhausted by fatigue, he was obliged to rest at a farmhouse near Carolina d'Arguellos, where he was recognised, and information sent to his pursuers of his retreat, by whom he was arrested. Conducted under a strong escort to Andujar, he was assailed by a mob with such violent imprecations and threatening gesticulations, that the French garrison of the place were obliged to turn out to save his life. As M. de Coppons, an officer of Marshal Moncey's staff, covered him with his body at the hazard of his life, he said, "The people who are now so excited against me—the people who, but for the succour of the French, would have murdered me —that same people last year, on this very spot, bore me in their arms in triumph: the city forced upon me, against my will, a sabre of honour: the night which I i Ann Hist passed nere houses were illuminated: the people »i.457,458; danced till morning under my windows, and prevented

Lam. vii. i i • i . . ...

258,261. me, by their acclamations, from obtaining a moment of sleep."1

These repeated disasters, and the accounts received from all quarters of the general submission of the country,

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at length convinced the Cortes of the hopelessness of the Chap. contest in which they were engaged. They got Ferdi- XI1' nand, accordingly, to sign a letter to the Duke d'Angou- 'j^3' leme, in which he requested a suspension of arms, with a Resumed view to the conclusion of a general peace. The duke re- tumVat plied, that it was indispensable, in the first instance, that J^uu TMd the king should be set at liberty, but that, as soon as this SaDt»Petri•was done, "he would earnestly entreat his Majesty to S"pt"4' accord a general amnesty, and to give of his own will, or to promise, such institutions as he may deem in his wisdom suitable to their feelings and character, and which may seem essential to their happiness and tranquillity." The Cortes, upon this, asked what evidence he would require that the king was at liberty? To which the duke answered that he would never regard him as so till he saw him in the middle of the French troops. This answer Sept. 10. broke off the negotiation, and soon after the arrival of Sir R. Wilson revived the hopes of the besieged, who still clung to the expectation of English intervention. But these hopes proved fallacious; and ere long the progress of the French was such that further resistance was obviously useless. On the 20th, a French squadron of two Sept. 20. ships of the line and two frigates opened a heavy fire on the fort of Santa Petri, on the margin of the bay, and with such effect, that on preparations being made for an assault, the white flag was hoisted, and the place capitulated on condition of the garrison being permitted to retire to Cadiz. From the advanced posts of the Trocadero and Santa Petri thus acquired, a bombardment of the town itself was three days after commenced, while Sept. 23. the ships in the bay kept up a fire with uncommon vigour on the batteries on the sea-side. The effect of this bombardment, which brought the reality of war to their homes, was terrible. The regiment of San Marcial, heretofore 1Ann deemed one of the steadiest in support of the Revolution, 467,468'; revolted, and was only subdued by the urban militia.1 Ter- 23X234.' ror prevailed on all sides ;—cries of " Treason!" became

Chap. general; every one distrusted his neighbour; and that xtI' universal discouragement prevailed which is at once the 1S2S- effect and the forerunner of serious disaster. gg Subdued at length by so many calamities, the special Deliverance commission of the Cortes entered in good earnest into anddiwoiu-negotiations. In a special meeting, called on the 28th Cort^.*" September, a report was laid before the Cortes by the Sept. 28. Government, which set forth that all their means of defence were exhausted, that no hope of intervention on the part of England remained, and that it was indispensable to come to terms with the enemy. The Cortesaccordingly, declared itself dissolved the same day; and the king sent a message to the Duke d'Angouleme. declaring that he was now at liberty; that he was making dispositions to embark at Port Santa Maria; that he had engaged to disquiet no one on account of his political conduct; and that he would reserve all public measures till he had returned to his capital. Three days afteroet. l. wards, accordingly, on the 1st October, every preparation having been completed, and the king having published a proclamation, in which he promised a general amnesty, and everything the Constitutionalists wished, the embarkation of the king and royal family took place at Santa Maria with great pomp, and amidst universal acclamation, and the thunder of artillery from all the batteries, both on the French and Spanish side of the bay.44 The * Ann Hist emDai*kation was distinctly seen from the opposite coast, vL47i,474, where the Duke d'Angouleme, at the head of his troops, 235,236.' and surrounded by a splendid staff, awaited his arrival;! and every eye watched, with speechless anxiety, the pro

* "Le roi promet l'oubli complot et absolu de ce qui est passe, la reconnaissance des dettes contractées par le gouvernement actuel, le maintien des grade?, emplois, traitements ct bonneurs, rnilitaires ou civils, accordes sous le regime constitutionnel, déclarant d'ailleurs de sa volonté libre et spontanea, no- la fox de la parole rot/ale, que s'il fallait absolument modifier les institutions politiques actuelles de la monarchic, S. M. adoptcrait un gouvernement, qui put faire le boubeur de la nation, on garantissant les personnes, les propriétes, et la liberte civile des Espagnols."—Proclamation dn Roi Ferdinand, 30th September 1823; Annuaire 11ittorique, vi . 471, 472.

gress of the bark which bore the royal family of Spain from Chap. the scene of their captivity, and with them restored, as was

hoped, peace and happiness to the entire Peninsula. 1823

Trained by long misfortunes, not less than the precepts flo of his confessors, to perfect habits of dissimulation, Fer- Scene at dinand, even when rowing across the bay, kept up the Mm. TTM" mask of generosity. He conversed with Valdez andoctlAlava, who accompanied him, down to the last moments, of the gratitude which he felt to them; of the need in which he stood of experienced and popular ministers to guide him in his new reign; he invited them to trust to his magnanimity—to land with him, and quit for ever a city where their kindness to him would be imputed to them as a crime. They distrusted, however, the sincerity of the monarch, and as soon as the royal family landed, pushed off from the shore. "Miserable wretches !" exclaimed the King, " they do well to withdraw from their fate!" The Duke d'Angouleme received the king kneeling, who immediately raised him from the ground, and threw himself into his arms. The thunder of artillery, waving of standards, and cheers of the troops, accompanied the auspicious event, which, in terminating the distraction of one, seemed to promise peace to both nations. But from the crowd which accompanied the royal 2^37"' cortege to the residence provided for them, were heard 2^ Aperies of a less pleasing and ominous import—" Viva el 471,472'j Rey! Viva el Religion! Muera la Nacion! Mueran los aJI/Jop. Negros !" 1 *

The first act of the king on recovering his liberty was to publish a proclamation, in which he declared null all Fintact« the acts of the Government which had been conducted in Gove"TM-"" his name from 7th March 1820 to 1st October 1823, "seeing that the king had been during all that period deprived of his liberty, and obliged to sanction the laws, orders, and measures of the revolutionary government."

* "Long live the King! Long live Religion! Death to the Nation! Death to the Liberals I"

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