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Chap. By the same decree lie ratified and approved everything XI1' which had been done by the regency installed at Ojarzun. 1823- on the 9th April 1822, and by the regency established at Madrid on the 26th May 1823, " until his Majesty, having made himself acquainted with the necessities of his people, may be in a situation to give them the laws and take the measures best calculated to insure their happiness, the constant object of his solicitude." In vain the. Duke d'Angouleme counselled measures of moderation and humanity: the voice of passion, the thirst for vengeance, alone were listened to. An entire change of course took place in the king's household; the Duke del Infantado was placed at its head, and the Regency in the mean time continued in its functions. The dissolution of the Cortes and deliverance of Ferdinand put an end to the war; for the disaffected, however indignant, had no longer a head to which they could look, or an 1 Ann Hist object for wmch they were to contend. Before the end £.474,476! of October all the fortresses which still held out for the '237,239,' revolutionary government had hoisted the royal flag, and Tiii.'2oSr all the corps which were in arms for its support had sent in their adhesion to the new Government.1

A great and glorious career now lay before Ferdinand, if Loud caii. he had possessed magnanimity sufficient to follow it. The nuf&fm revolution had been extinguished with very little effusion «on»TMd 0I" blood.; the angry passions had not been awakened by clemency, general massacres ; the revolutionary government had been overturned as easily, and with nearly as little loss of life, as the royal authority at Paris, by the taking of the Bastille on 14th June 1789. The king had pledged his royal word to an absolute and unconditional amnesty. Clemency and moderation were as easy, and as loudly called for, in the one case as the other; and if this wise and generous course had been adopted, what a long train of calamities would have been spared to both countries! The revolutionists and the king had alike many faults to regret, many injuries to forgive; and it would have been worthy

of the first in rank and the first in power, to take the Chap. lead in that glorious emulation. But unhappily, in the X1L Spanish character, the desire for vengeance and the thirst 1823for blood are as inherent as the spirit of adventure aud the heroism of resistance; and amidst all the declamations in favour of religion, the priests who surrounded the throne forgot that the forgiveness of injuries is the first of the Christian virtues. The consequence was, that the royalist government took example from the revolutionary in deeds of cruelty; the reaction was as violent as the action had been; and Spain was the victim of mutual injuries, and torn by intestine passions for a long course of years, until the discord ceased by the exhaustion of those who were its victims.

Riego was the first victim. Cries were heard, which g3 showed how profound was the indignation and wide- sentence of spread the thirst for vengeance in the Spanish mind. Rlcg°' The first step taken was to bring him to trial. No advocate could be found bold enough to undertake his defence; the court was obliged to appoint one to that perilous duty. During the whole time the trial was going on, a furious crowd surrounded the hall of justice with cries of "Muera Riego! Muera el Tradidor! Viva el Rey Assoluto!" His conviction followed as a matter of course, and he was sentenced to death amidst the same shouts from an excited audience, whom even the solemnity 1Ann Hij{ of that awful occasion, and the very magnitude of the vi.48i,482; offence -with which the prisoner was charged, could not 261,262.' overawe into temporary silence.1

His execution took place a few days afterwards, and under circumstances peculiarly shocking, and which His execureflected the deepest disgrace on the Spanish govern- Nov'. 7. ment. Stript of his uniform, clothed in a wrapper of white cloth, with a green cap, the ensign of liberty, on his head, he was placed with his hands tied behind his back, on a hurdle drawn by an ass, in which he was conveyed, surrounded by priests, and with the Miserere

Vol. 11. 2 Y

Chap. of the dying unceasingly rung in his ears by a chorister. XIL to the place of execution. The multitude gazed in sileuct 1823. on the frightful spectacle. The memorable reverse of fortune, from being the adored chief of the revolution to becoming thus reviled and rejected, for a moment subdued the angry passions. Arrived at the foot of the scaifold, which was constructed upon an eminence in the Plaza de la Cebaba, forty feet high, so as to be seen from a great distance, he received absolution for his crimes, and was lifted up, still bound, pale and attenuated, already half dead, to the top of the scaffold, i Lam Tii whcre the fatal cord was passed round his neck, and he 263,264; was launched into eternity. A monster in the human

Ann. Hist. *

vi.483'Mo-form gave a bunct to his countenance after death;* a 14, 1823. 'shudder ran through the crowd, which was soon drowned iu cries of " Viva el Rey! Viva el Rey Assoluto !" 1 gs The King and Queen of Spain made their triumphal Entry of entry into Madrid six days after that melancholy execunndqulen tion, amidst an immense crowd of spectators, and surNoTMi3."d- rounded by every demonstration of joy. Their majesties were seated on an antique and gigantic chariot, twentyfire feet high, which was drawn by a hundred young men elegantly attired, surrounded by groups of dancers of both sexes, in the most splendid theatrical costumes, whose operatic display elicited boundless applause from the spectators. The spirit of faction appeared to be dead; one only feeling seemed to animate every breast. which was joy at the termination of the revolution. But it soon appeared that, if the convulsions had ceased, the passions it had called forth were far from being appeased. The long-wished-for amnesty, so solemnly promised by the king before his liberation at Cadiz, and which would have closed in so worthy a spirit the wounds of the

* The same thing was done to the beautiful head of Charlotte Corday after she had been guillotined.—See llatory of Europe, former series, chap. xii. § 78. How identical is the passion of party and the spirit of vcDgcanco in all Ages and countries!

revolution, had not yet been promulgated, and it was Chap. looked for with speechless anxiety by the numerous rela- — tives and friends of the persons compromised. For 1 3' several days after the king's arrival in the capital it did not make its appearance, and meanwhile arrests continued daily, and were multiplied to such a degree that the prisons were soon overflowing. At length the public anxiety became so great that the Government were compelled to publish the amnesty on the 19th. It contained, Nov. 19. however, so many exceptions, that it was rather a declaration of war against the adverse party than a healing and pacific measure. It excepted all the persons who had taken a leading part in the late disturbance, and their number was so great that it was evident it laid the foundation of interminable discords and certain reaction. On the 2d December, the list of the new Ministry ap- Dec. a peared, constructed, as might have been expected, from amongst the persons who had been most instrumental in promoting the return to the ancient regime.* The Duke del Infantado was dismissed from the presidency of the Privy Council, which was bestowed on Don Ignace Martinez de la Rosa; and the Council itself was composed of ten persons, all devoted Royalists. At the same time, however, on the urgent representation of Count Pozzo di Borgo, who bore a holograph letter of the Emperor of Russia on the subject, a pledge was given of an intention to revert to more moderate councils, by D^o?"' the dismissal of Don Victor Laez, the organ of the ,nf*ios*p" violent apostolic party, from the important office of con- f,1^^""' fessor to the king, who was succeeded by a priest of more 485, 48«. reasonable views.1

The revolution was now closed, and the royal government re-established in Spain, supported by ninety

* Marquis Casn-Irugo, Premier and Foreign Affairs; Don Narcisso de Hondia, Minister of Grace and Justice; Don José de la Crux, War ; Don Luis Lopez-Ballasteros, Finances; Don Luis-Maria Salazar, Marino and Colonies.—Annuaire Hittorique, vi. 485.

Chap. thousand French soldiers, in possession of its princi

. !_ pal fortresses, and so disposed as to be able at once

'J^3, to crush any fresh revolutionary outbreak. But it is Distracted not by the mere cessation of hostilities that the passions

and miser- _ .. . ... «w»

able state of revolution are extinguished, or its disastrous effects of spam. oy^e^tgj Deplorable to the last degree was the condition of Spain on the termination of the civil war, and deep and unappeasable the thirst of vengeance with which the different parties were animated against each other. The finances, as usual in such cases, gave woeful proof of the magnitude of the general disorder, and the extent to which it had sapped the foundations alike of public and private prosperity. In the greater part of the provinces the collection of revenue had entirely ceased; where it was still gathered, it came in so slowly as not to deserve the name of a national revenue. The 5 per cents were down at 16; loans attempted to be opened in every capital of Europe found no subscribers. The effects of the clergy, the revenues of the kingdom offered in security of advances, failed to overcome the terrors of capitalists. Recognition of the loans of the Cortes was everywhere stated as the first condition of further accommodation, and this the disastrous state of the finances rendered impossible, for they were wholly inadequate to meet the interest of these. The only activity displayed in the kingdom was in the mutual arrest of their enemies by the different parties; the only energy, in preparing the means of wreaking vengeance on each other. But for the presence of the French army, they would have flown at each other's throats, and „ ,„ civil war would in many places have been renewed. Peace

Dec. 18. . i -iii

lAnn.Hut. an" protection were everywhere experienced under the £^7,488; white flag;1 and so general was the sense of the absolute Tsu ;2iop' necessit,y of its shelter, that no opposition was made any2ia ' where to a convention by which it was stipulated that for a year longer thirty-five thousand French troops

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