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should remain in possession of the principal Spanish Chap. fortresses. _
Portugal has in recent times so entirely followed the political changes of Spain, that in reading the account of state of the one you would imagine you are perusing that of the dS?this other. The parties were the same, the objects of conten- LTinMjr«" tion the same, their alternate triumphs and disasters thetionsame. In the early part of the year the Cortes were still all-powerful, and a long lease of power was presaged for the constitutional government. When the French invasion of Spain appeared certain, an army of observation was formed on the frontier without opposition. But civil war soon appeared. On the 23d February, the Conde Feb. 23. d'Amarante, at Villa-Real, raised the standard of insurrection, and published a proclamation, in which he called on all loyal subjects to unite with him in "delivering the country from the yoke of the Cortes, the scourge of revolution, the religion of their enemies, and to rescue the king from captivity." The proclamation was received with enthusiasm; in a few days the whole province of Tras-osMontes was in arms, several regular regiments joined the Royalist standard, and in the beginning of Marcli aformidable force appeared on the banks of the Douro. There, however, they were met by the Constitutional generals at the head of eight thousand men; and after a variety of conflicts with various success, in the course of which the Conde d'Amarante was often worsted, the Royalists were driven back into Tras-os-Montes with considerable loss, March is. from whence Amarante was fain to escape into Spain, where he joined the curate Merino, who had hoisted the white flag, with four thousand men in the neighbourhood of Valladolid. The insurrection seemed subdued, and the fjj^ ^. session of the Cortes concluded amidst Io Pceans and A'^9^"1! congratulatory addresses on the part of the Constitu- 1823", 176! tionalists.1
Chap. But these transports were of short duration; the
'French invasion speedily altered the aspect of affairs,
"J*8, not less in Portugal than in Spain. On the 27th Mar,
Royku'st one of the regiments in the army of observation on the
volution, frontier raised the cry of "Viva el Rey!" and on the
M*y2'' following night the Infant Dom Miguel, the acknowledged head of the royalist party, escaped from Lisbon, and joined the revolted corps at Villa-Franca. The prince immediately published a proclamation, in which he declared that his object was to free the nation from the shameful yoke which had been imposed on it, to liberate the king, and give the people a constitution exempt alike from despotism and license. A great number of influential persons immediately joined him, and the Court at Villa-Franca became a rival to that at Lisbon. On the 29th, Sepulveda, with part of the garrison of Lisbon, declared for the royal cause; and the Cortes, which had assembled, was thrown into the utmost consternation by the same cry being repeated in various
May si. quarters of the city. At length the infection spread to the royal guard; cries of "Viva el Rey Assoluto P broke from their ranks ; the cockades of the Constitution were everywhere torn oft" and trampled under foot, and the king himself, who had come out to appease the tumult, was obliged to join in the same cry, and to detach the Constitutional cockade from his breast. In the evening a proclamation was published, dated from the royalist headquarters, in which he announced a change of government and modification of the constitution. The
June2. Cortes was dissolved on the 2d of June; on the same day a proclamation M as published, denouncing in severe terms the vices of the revolutionary system; and two days after the counter-revolution was rendered irrevocable by the king moving to the Royalist headquarters at
Junes. Villa-Franca. Three days after, he returned in great pomp to Lisbon, where he was received with universal acclamations; the Ministry was changed; the Infant Chap.
Doiu Miguel was declared generalissimo of the army, the . L_
Count de Palmella appointed Premier and Minister of 1823Foreign Affairs, and the whole Cabinet composed of royalist chiefs. Everything immediately returned into the old channels; the revolutionary authorities all sent in their adhesion or were dismissed: and to the honour of Portugal be it said, the counter-revolution was completed without bloodshed, and no severer penalties than the!£,cgexile from Lisbon of thirty of the most violent members 19*>; Ann.
of the Cortes, and the loss of office by a few of the 504,'51'i. Liberal chiefs.1
The return of the Duke d'Angoulenie, and the greater part of his army, after this memorable campaign, was Triumphant a continual triumph. It was no wonder it was so; it theUDuko had proved one of the most remarkable recorded in f6m"egt0u history. In less than six mouths, with the loss ofp*"*.j only four thousand men, as well by sickness as the sword, with an expenditure of only 200,000,000 francs (£8,000,000), they had subdued and pacified Spain, delivered the king, arrested the march of revolution, and stopped the convulsions of Europe. The campaigns of Napoleon have no triumphs so bloodless to recount. Great preparations had been made in Paris to receive them in a manner worthy of the occasion. On the 2d December, the anniversary of the battle of Austerlitz, the prince made his triumphal entry into Paris on horseback, at the head of the 6lite of his troops, surrounded by a splendid staff, among whom were to be seen Marshals Oudinot, Marmont, and Lauriston, General Bordesoult, the Duke de Guiche, and Count de la Rochejaquelein. The aspect of the troops, their martial air and bronzed visages, recalled the most brilliant military spectacles of the Empire. They passed under the magnificent triumphal arch of Neuilly, finished for the occasion, and thence through the Champs Eh/sees to the Tuileries, through a double line
Chap. of national guards, aud an immense crowd of spectators, xu' who rent the air with their acclamations. The munici1823, pality and chief public bodies of Paris met the prince at the barrier de l'Etoile, and addressed him in terms of warm but not undeserved congratulation on his glorious exploits.* The prince, modestly bowing almost to his charger's neck, replied, "I rejoice that I have accomplished the mission which the king intrusted to me, re-established peace, and shown that nothing is impossible at the head of a French army." Arrived at the Tuileries, he dismounted, and hastened to the king, who stood in great pomp to receive him. "My son," said iLam vii tûe monarch with solemnity, "I am satisfied with you 267,270^ and, taking him by the hand, he led him to the balcony, Ti. 242,244. where an immense crowd, with redoubled acclamations, testified their sympathy with the scene.1
This triumphant career of the French army in Spain offer of M- was viewed with very different eyes by the powers BuriTto in Europe most interested in the issue. The Emperor jected.°re of Russia, who had warmly supported the project of the intervention at Verona, and anxiously watched the progress of the enterprise, offered to move forward his troops from the Vistula to tbe Rhine, and to cover the eastern frontier of France with his armed masses. Mr Canning, justly alarmed at so open an assertion of a
* "' Nos vœux vous suivaient à votre départ,' lui dit le préfet do Paria, 'nos acclamations vous attendaient à votre heureux retour. Depuis trente ans, le nom de guerre n'était qu'un cri d'effroi, qu'un signal de calamités pour les peuples; la population des états onvaliis, comme celle des états conquérants, se précipitant l'une sur l'autre, offraient aux yeux du sage, un spectacle lamentable. Aujourd'hui la guerre relève les nations abattues sur tous les points d'un vaste empire. Elle apparaît humaine, protectrice et généreuse, guerrière sans peur, conquérante sans vengeance. Votre vaillante épée, à la voix d'un puissant Monarque, vient de consacrer le noble et le légitime emploi do la valeur et des armes. Les trophées de la guerre, devenus la consolation d'un peuple opprimé, lo volean de la Révolution fermé pour jamait, la réconciliation de notre patrie cimentée aux yeux du monde, la victoire rendue à nos marins comme à nos guerriers, et la gloire do tous les enfants de la Fiance confondue dans un nouveau faisceau; tels sont, Monseigneur, les résultats de cette campagne, telle est l'œuvre que vous avez accomplie."—Moniteur, Dec. 3, 1823.
right of protectorate over Europe, strongly opposed the Chap. proposal. "France," said he, "conceiving her safety menaced, and her interests compromised, by the existing state of things in the Peninsula, we have not opposed her right to intervene; but she should only act singly, and the strictest neutrality should be observed by the other powers. If, in defiance of all stipulations, the European cabinets should act otherwise, England would feel herself constrained to enforce the observance of existing engagements, and would at once consider the cause of Spain as her own." M. de Chateaubriand cordially seconded these remonstrances, and respectfully declined the proffered succour—
"Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis."
The armed intervention of Russia was thus averted by the union of the two western powers; and as the revolution of Portugal threatened the influence of England in that country, Mr Canning and the Prince de Poliguac, the French ambassador in London, came to an understanding that France tfas not to interfere between the 209* 214"' Cabinet of St James's and its ancient ally.1
It was with undisguised vexation that Mr Canning beheld the triumphaut progress of the French arms in views of Spain; and deeming, with reason, the throne of the in'reco^'i"Bourbons greatly strengthened, and the influence of p"*^ "f France on the Continent in a great degree re-established ^thAme" by the successful issue of the campaign, he resolved upon a measure which should re-establish the balance, and at the same time, as he hoped, materially benefit the commercial interests of England. This was the Recognition Op The Republics Op South America. His intention in this respect had been long before divined by the able diplomatist who conducted the French interests in London ; * and we now possess the history of his views from
* "II est temps de joter un regard sericux sur l'avenir, et sur le dangercux ministro qui est venu se placer & la tete des destinees de l'Angleterre. II