Chap. appointed Captain-general of Aragon; Velasco, the late

L_ governor of Madrid, who had been dismissed from his

office for his supineness on occasion of Riego's riot in Victory of the theatre, was appointed Governor of Seville; Mina made Captain-general of Galicia; Lopez Bafios, of Navarre; Don Carlos Espifiosa of Old Castile; ArcoArguerro, of Estremadura; the Duque del Infantado, President of the Council of Castile; and all the persons of moderation in the Government were sent into exile from the capital. These were all men, not only of approved courage, but of the most determined revolutionary principles. The whole subordinate officers, civil as well as military, were selected from the same party; so that the entire authority in the kingdom had, before the end of the year, passed "into the hands of the supporters of the new order of things. The clubs resumed their former activity, and increased in vigour and audacity in the metropolis; and with them were now associated a still more dangerous body of allies in the secret societies of the provinces. 'The ancient and venerable institution of free-masonry, formed for the purposes of benevolence, I 2wi'i«ic-' and hitherto unstained by those of party, was now perA-n«9Ii.t-' verted to a different object, and converted into a huge Ann. Reg. Jacobin Society, held together by secret signs and oaths; 232.' 'and along with it was associated a new institution of a still more dangerous and pernicious tendency.1

This was a society, which assumed the title of "FrancNew society Communeros." Their principles were those of the Sot?onoru cialists, in their widest acceptation; their maxims, that lynch law. uniVersal equality was the birthright of man, and that nothing had hitherto so much impeded its establishment as the false and hypocritical ideas of philanthropy and moderation by which the reign of despots had been so long prolonged. In pursuance of these principles, they were bound by their oath, on entering the society, to obey all mandates they received from its superior officers, whatever they were, and however contrary to the laws of the state; and they engaged "to judge, Chap.

condemn, and execute every individual, without excep- !_

tion, including the king or his successors, who might 1820abuse their authority." So far was this power of selfjudging and lynch law carried, that it led to serious disturbances, particularly in Asturias and Galicia, in the end of November and December, which were not suppressed without serious bloodshed; while in Madrid the agitation was so violent that one of the clubs was shut up by order of Government, while the whole garrison was called out to enforce the order; and the king, trembling for his life, no longer ventured to leave his pwn palace. An incident soon occurred which showed how wellfounded his apprehensions were, and gave a pitiable proof of the state of degradation to which the royal authority was reduced. The king at length went out in his carriage, which was speedily surrounded by an insulting mob, which, from furious cries, proceeded to assail the royal vehicle and guards with showers of stones. Indignant at such conduct, the guards wheeled about, charged the assailants, wounded several, and dispersed the rest. Instantly a furious mob got up, which surrounded the barrack to which the guard had retired, and insisted upon the obnoxious men being delivered up to them. This was done: they were thrown into prison and detained there long, though their conduct was so evidently justifiable that they were not brought to trial; and the king, on the representation of his ministers that the iMartignac sacrifice could no longer be averted, was obliged to^'v-^6';' dismiss his whole guard, and confine himself to his own uusolisi. palace.1

Portugal evidently was intended by nature to form gi part of the same monarchy as Spain. The Pyrenees, Identity of which separate them both from all the rest of Europe ; to^of the ocean, which encircles both their shores, and opens to Portugal"1 them the same commerce and maritime interests; the

Chap, identity of soil and climate which they both enjoy in VIL the old hemisphere, the vast colonies they had acquired 1820, in the new, the homogeneous nature of the races and nations from which they were both descended, and the similarity of manners and institutions which both, in consequence, had established, have caused their history, especially in recent times, to be almost identical. The tyranny of the Spanish government, the patriotic resistance of the heroic house of Braganza, even entire centuries of jealousy or war, have not been able to eradicate these seeds of union so plentifully sown by the hand of nature. Like the English and Scotch, they yearned to each other, even when severed by political discord, or engaged in open hostility; happy if, like them, they had been reunited in one family, and one pacific sceptre restored peace to the whole provinces of the Peninsula. 9s It was not to be expected that so very important an Revolution event as the Spanish Revolution of 1820, overturning as Aug. 23. it did, by military revolt, an aged throne, and establishing a nominal monarchy and real democracy in its stead, was to fail in exciting a corresponding spirit, especially among the military in the sister kingdom. But, in addition to this, there were many circumstances which rendered revolution in favour of a constitutional form of government more natural—it might almost be said unavoidable —in Portugal than in Spain. Long habits of commercial intercourse, close alliance between the two countries, glorious victories in which the two nations had stood side by side, had inspired the Portuguese with an ardent, it might almost be said an extravagant, admiration of British liberty and institutions. They had seen the probity of English administration, and contrasted it with the corruptions of their own: they ascribed it all to the influence of English institutions, and thought they would exchange the one for the other, by adopting a representative form of government; they had seen the valour of British soldiers, and thought liberty would in like manner render them invincible. A conspiracy, which proved abor- Chap.

tive, headed by General Freyre, in 1817, had already given!

proof how generally these ideas influenced the army; and lm three additional years of government by a Regency at Lisbon, without the lustre or attractions of a court to enlist the selfish feelings on the side of loyalty, had given them additional strength, and rendered the whole population of the seaports and army ripe for a revolt. The consequence was, that when it broke out, on the night of the Ang 23 23d August, it met with scarcely any resistance. The ^fTM-,1^: whole military commenced the revolt; the people all Ann. &g.' joined them; a junta, consisting of popular leaders, was233.' established, and a constitutional government proclaimed.1

When the English, retiring from their long career of g6 victory, withdrew from Portugal, Marshal Beresford, who which had trained their army and led it to victory, was left at a revolution its head, and about a hundred English officers, chiefly on ttft. the staff or in command of regiments, remained in Portugal. Aware of the crisis which was approaching, Marshal Beresford had, in April, embarked for Rio Janeiro, to lay in person before the king a representation of the discontents of the country, and the absolute necessity of making a large and immediate remittance to discharge the pay of the troops, which had fallen very much into arrears. Many of the English officers, however, were at Oporto when the insurrection broke out; and as their fidelity to their oaths was well known, they were immediately arrested and put into confinement, though treated with the utmost respect. Meanwhile the insurrection spread over the whole of the Aug.28. north of Portugal, and the Conde de Amarante, who had endeavoured to make head against it in the province of Tras-os-Montes, was deserted by his troops, who joined the insurgents, and obliged to fly into Galicia. The Regency at Lisbon, on the 29th August, published a fierce proclamation, denouncing the proceedings at Oporto, and declaring their resolution to subvert them. But they soon had convincing proof that their authority rested

Chap. on a sandy foundation. The 15th September, the anniv1L versary of the delivery of the Portuguese territory from im- Junot's invasion in 1808, had hitherto always been kept as a day of great national and military rejoicing in Portugal. On this occasion, however, the Regency, distrustful of the fidelity of their troops, forbade any military display. The soldiers had been ordered to be confined to their barracks, when, at four in the afternoon, the 18th regiment, of its own accord, marched out, headed by its officers, and, making straight for the great square of the city, drew up there in battle array, amidst cries of "Viva el Constitution." They were soon joined by the 10th regiment from the castle, the 4th from the Campo d'Ourique, the cavalry, the artillery, and ere long by the whole of the garrison. All, headed by their officers, and in full marching order, were assembled in. the square, amidst cheers from the soldiers and deafening shouts from the people. No resistance was anywhere attempted; nothing was seen but unanimity, nothing heard but the "vivas" of the soldiery, and the huzzas of the multitude. The halls of the Regency were thrown open, and a new set of regents appointed by the leaders 1 A£n-„?;* of the revolt by acclamation: and having accomplished

1820,2M, J ° ...

235; Ann. the revolution, the soldiers returned at ten at night, in 473,'475. parade order, to their barracks, as from a day of ordinary festivity.1

Universal enthusiasm ensued for some days, and the Ertaui.h- unanimity of the people proved how general and deepjdntre^en- seated had been the desire for political change and a bo*.'Lia" representative government, at least among the military Oct. 6. and tne citizens of the towns. The entire country followed, as is generally the case in such instances, the example of the capital; the constitution was everywhere proclaimed, and the former persons in authority were superseded by others attached to the new order of things. On the 1st October, the Oporto Junta entered the capital, and immediately fraternised in the most cordial way with

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