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13. A currency based on the precious metals is always liable to fluctuations, 387

14. Concurring causes which brought about the bill of 1819, . . 388

15. Danger of a currency entirely rested on a metallic basis, . . 390

16. True system, ........ 391

17. Peculiar dangers with which the resumption of cash payments was attended, 392

18. Strain on the money market, from the immense loans on the Continent, 393

19. Great prosperity of England in end of 1818 and spring of 1819, from

extension of its currency, ..... 394

20. Great internal prosperity of the country, .... 395

21. Disastrous contraction of the currency, .... 397

22. Its effects on the Bank issues, ...... 398

23. And on prices of all commodities, ..... 399

24. Rapid increase of disaffection in tho country, .... 401

25. Meeting at Petorloo, . . . . . . .403

26. Great excitement, and objects of the meeting, . . . 404

27. Its dispersion by the military, . "* . . . ib.

28. Noble conduct of Lord Sidmouth on the occasion, . . . 406

29. Result of Hunt's trial, ....... 407

30. Reflections on the impolicy of allowing such meetings, . . 408

31. And on the conduct of the magistrates, .... 409

32. Seditious meetings in other quarters, . . . . . . 411

33. Augmentation of the Chelsea pensioners, . . . . 412

34. Meeting of Parliament, and measures of Government, . . 414

35. Lord Sidmouth's Acts of Parliament, ..... 415

36. Impression Lord Sidmouth and Lord Castlereagh made on the Radicals, 416

37. Death of the Duke of Kout, . . . . .417

38. Death of George III., . . . . . . .418

39. Deep impression which his death made on the country, . . 419

40. Birth of Queen Victoria, . . • . . . 420

41. Alarming illness of George IV., ..... 421

42. Ominous questions regarding the omission of Queen Caroline's name in

the Liturgy, ....... 422

43. Remarkable speech of Mr Brougham, ..... 423

44. Cato Street conspiracy. Thistlewood's previous life, ib.

45. Design of the conspirators, ...... 424

46. Their final plans, ....... 425

47. Conflict in the dark in the Cato Street loft, .... 426

48. Execution of the conspirators, ...... 427

49. Disturbances in Scotland and north of England, . . . 429

50. Insurrection in Scotland, . . . . . .430

51. Outhreak of the insurrection, and its suppression, ib.

52. Death and character of Mr G rat tan, . . . 4 32

53. His character as a statesman and orator, .... 433

54. Increase of tho yeomanry force, ..... 434

55. The budget for 1820, ....... 435

56. Important subjects of debate in this session, .... 437

57. Statisties on education in England and Wales by Mr Brougham, . ib.

58. Difficulties of this subject, and necessity of an assessment, . . 439

59. Its difficulties, and attempts at their solution, ib.

60. Probable mode of solving it, . . . . . 440

61. What is to bo done with the educated classes? . . . 441
§

G2. Effect of education in leading to the dispersion of mankind, .

63. Disfranchisement of Grampound, and transfer of its members tc

64. Rise of free-trade ideas among the merchants, and Lord Lam

declaration on the subject, ....

65-67. Lord Liverpool's memorable speech in reply,

68. Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distre

69-71. Opinion of Mr Brougham on this subject, .

72-74. Answer by Mr Ricardo, .....

75. Additional facts since discovered on this subject, . .

76. Commencement of the troubles about the queen,

77. Sketch of her life prior to this period,

78. Her conduct abroad, and proceedings in consequence of it, .

79. Omission of the queen's name in the Liturgy, and her return t<

80. Her landing in England, and enthusiastic reception,

81. Views of the Radical leaders on the occasion,

82. Enthusiastic reception of the queen at Dover and in London,

83. Failure of the negotiations, and commencement of the inquiry,

84. Scene which ensued on the trial, ....

85. Progress of the trial, and its difficulties,

86. Peroration of Mr Brougham's defence,

87. Queen's defence, and failure of the bill,

88. General transports of the people, ....

89. Rapid reaction of public opinion, ....

90. Consternation of the ministry, who resolve to remain at their ]

91. Return of popularity of Government, and causes of it, .

92. Meeting of Parliament, and first proceedings,

93. Debates on foreign affairs, .....

94. Sir James Mackintosh's efforts to improve the criminal law,

95. Mr Canning's striking speech on Catholic emancipation,

96. Answer by Mr Peel, ......

97. Which is carried in the Commons, and lost in the Peers,

98. Lord John Russell's motion for parliamentary reform,

99. Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distrc

100. Bank Cash Payment Bill, .....

101-102. Mr Baring's speech on the subject, . . .

103. Vehement demand for a reduction of taxation,

104. Agricultural committee reports, and state of the consumption o

of luxury, ......

105. Increase of the desire for reform among the agriculturists, .

106. Coronation of George IV., .....

107. Ceremony on the occasion, .....

108. Aspect of Wellington, Londonderry, and George IV.,

109. The queen is refused admittance: her death,

110. King's visit to Ireland, . . . . .

111. Funeral of the queen, ......

112. Dismissal of Sir R. Wilson from the army,

113. Changes in the Cabinet, .

114. Retirement of Lord Sidmouth, who is succeeded by Mr Peel

Secretary, ......

115. Lord Wollesley appointed Viceroy of Ireland, and change in th

ment there, ......

S Page

116. Cause of the wretchedness of Ireland, . . . .492

117. What would have relieved the couutry, and its neglect, . . 493

118- Ruinous effect of the contraction of the currency upon Ireland, . 494

119. Progress of the agrarian disturbances in Ireland, . . . 495

120. Lord Wellesloy's able conduct and impartiality, . . . 496

121. Dreadful examples in the disturbed districts, . . . 497

122. Dreadful famine in the south and west of Ireland, . . . ib.

123. Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, and Insurrection Act, . 499

124. Divisions on the Catholic claims, ..... 500

125. Increasing strength of tho minority on parliamentary reform, . 601

126. Peroration of Mr Canning's speech, ..... 502

127. Sir James Mackintosh's motion regarding tho criminal law, . . 503

128. Great fall in the price of all sorts of produce, . . . 504

129. Measures for the relief of the agricultural classes, . . . 505

130. Detailed measures of Government for the relief of the agriculturists, 506

131. Motion of Mr Western on tho currency, .... 507

132-135. Mr Huskisson's arguments in support of tho existing system, 507-509

136-142. Reply by Mr Attwood, . . . . . .610-514

143. Repeated defeats of Ministers in tho House of Commons, . . 515

144. Great reductions of taxation introduced by Ministers, . . 616

145. The budget, ...... 517

146. Reduction of the 5 per cents, . . . . . . 518

147. Equalisation of the Dead Weight, and military and naval pensions, 519

148. Details of the measure, ...... 520

149. Important Small Notes Bill, ...... ib.

150. Its provisions, . . . . . . . 521

151. Six acts relating to commerce and navigation, . . . 522

152. Visit of tho king to Edinburgh, ..... i4.

153. Particulars of the royal visit, ..... 523

154. Death of Lord Londonderry, . . . . . .524

155. His character, ........ 525

156. Its indomitable firmness, ...... 526

157. His policy in domestic affairs, ..... 527

158. Political changes in progress, from tho resumption of cash payments, ib.

159. Internal changes arising from the same causo, . . . 528

160. Lord Londonderry was tho last of the real rulers of England, . 529

161. Increased ascendant of the rulers of thought, . . . 530

162. Simultaneous outhreak of the revolutionary spirit in different countries, ib.

163. Different characters of the revolts in the different states, . . 531

WTENTS OF CHAP. XI.

CONTENTS OF CHAP. XI.

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•HAPTER XI.

OM THE ACCESSION OF VTLLELE IN 1819 TO THE
1 OF VERONA IN 1822.

.nd in regard to the Spanish revolution, 533

d this divergence, . . . 534

..... 685

538

5. His defects, . . 1

6. Viscount Chateaubriand,

7. His merits as an orator,

8. His character as a statesman,

9. His defects,

10. M. de Villele, .

11. His peculiar turn of mind, and course of policy,

12. M. de Corbiere, M. Mathieu de Montmorency, M. de Peyronnet, Vic

13. Law regarding the press, ....

14. Its stringent provisions, ....

15. Discussion on it,

16. Rise of the Carbonari and secret societies in France, .

17. Rise of Carbonarism in France,

18. Abortive conspiracy at Bfifort, ....

19. Berton's conspiracy at Thouars,

20. Conspiracy at La Rochelle, ....

21. Their trial and execution, ....

22. Reflections on these events, . . , .

23. Insurrection at Colmar, Marseilles, and Toulon,

24. Budget of 1822,

25. Favourable result of the elections to the Royalists,

26. State of public opinion, ....

27. Attempted restoration of the royal authority at Madrid,

28. Opening of the Cortes, and dismissal of the ministers,

29. Conduct of the Cortes, and appointment of a new Ministry,

30. Effect produced in Spain by the crushing of the revolution in Italy,

31. Extraordinary outbreak of revolutionary fury in the east of Spain,

32. Revolutionary laws passed by the Cortes,

33. Barbarous murder of the priest Vinuesa,

34. Institution of the Order of the Hammer,

35. Insurrection in Navarre, and appointment of Murillo at Madrid,

36. Proceedings of the Cortes, . ....

37. Deplorable state of the finances, and measures regarding them,

38. Fresh tumults in Madrid, .....

39. Resignation of General Murillo, ....

40. The secret societies, or Communeros, ....

41. Riego's plot at Saragossa, and his arrest,

42. Suppression of the tumults thence arising at Madrid, .

43. Yellow fever at Barcelona, .....

44. Fresh agitation, .......

45. Refusal of Cadiz and Seville to receive the king's governors, and re

Corunna, . .

46. Opening of an extraordinary Cortes, ....

47. Contradictory resolutions of the Cortes,

48. Irresolute conduct of the king, and Royalist insurrection in the nort

49. Proposed laws against the press and patriotic societies,

50. Riots in Madrid on the passing of a bill against the press,

51. Composition of the new Cortes, ....

62. New ministry, .......

53. Opening of the Cortes, and disastrous state of the finances,

54. General disturbances in Spain, . . . .

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