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CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

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1. Analogy of the early history of Spain and England, ... 1

2. The colonies were not a source of weakness to Spain, ... 2

3. Colonics arc always a benefit to the parent state, ... 3

4. Support which colonies afford to the mother country, ib.

5. What the colonial policy of the parent state should be, . . 4

6. Inevitable loss to the parent state from the separation of the colonies, 5

7. Tyrannical rule of old Spain over her colonies, ... 7

8. The trade of Spain was all with foreign manufactures, ... 8

9. Want of industry in the national character, .... 9

10. The physical circumstances of Spain favoured commerce, but not manufac-

tures, ........ 10

11. Effect of the long-continued hostility with the Moors, . . 11

12. Impolitic laws of Spain in regard to money, . . " . 12

13. Important effect of the Romish faith, . . . . . 13

14. Difference of the towns and country in respect of political opinion, . 14

15. Disposition of the army, . . . • . " 15

16. The church, 16

17. State of the peasantry, . . . . . • • 17

18. State of the nobility, ....... 19

19. Huge gap in the revenue from tholoss of the South American colonies, 20

20. Constitution of 1812: how it was formed, .... 21

21. Its extreme democratic tendency, ..... 22

22. Utter unsuitableness of the constitution to tho generality of Spain, . 23

23. Universal unpopularity of the Cortes and constitution, . . 24

24. Influence of the Cortes on South America, .... 25

25. Situation of Portugal: effect of the removal of tho seat of government to

Rio Janeiro, ....... 27

26. Its general adoption of English habits and ideas, ib-

27. Character of Ferdinand VII., ...... 28

28. Ferdinand's arrival in Spain, and treatment by the Cortes, . . 29

29. Universal unpopularity of the Cortes, ..... 30

30. Decree of Valencia, ....... 31

VOL. II. a

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31. King's declaration in favour of freedom, and promise to convoke a legal

Cortes, ........ 32

32. Universal transports in Spain at this decree, and tlie king's rotum to

Madrid, 33

33. Reflections on this event, and the obvious courses which lay open to the

king, 34

34. Ferdinand's despotic measures. Re-establishment of the Inquisition, 35

35. Discontent in various quarters, ..... 36

36. Revolt of Mina in Navarre, ...... 37

37. Fresh arbitrary decree of Ferdinand, ..... 38

38. Further violent proceedings of the king, and Porlier's revolt, , . 39

39. Its failure, and his death, ...... ib.

40. Invasion of France, and retreat of the Spaniards. Fresh tyrannical acts of

the king, ....... 40

41. Change of ministers, and policy at Madrid, .... 42

42. Restoration of the Jesuits, and other despotic measures, . . 43

43. Double marriages of the royal families of Spain and Portugal, . 44

44. Creation of the kingdom of Brazil, ..... 45

45. Insurrection in Valencia, ...... ib.

46. Abortive conspiracy in Barcelona, and death of General Lacy, . 46

47. Papal bull regarding the contribution by the Spanish church, . 47

48. Treaty regarding the Queen of Etruria, ib.

49. Treaty for the limitation of the slave-trade, .... 48

50. Miserable state of Spain: its army and navy, .... 49

51. Extreme penury of the finances of Spain. Decree, April 3, 1818, . 50

52. Death of Queen Maria Isabella of Spain, . . . . 51

53. Disastrous fate of the first expedition to Lima, ib.

54. Fresh revolt at Valencia, which is suppressed, .... 52

55. Causes of the revolt in the Isle of Leon, .... t'6.

56. Efforts of the Cadiz Liberals to promote it, . . . 53

57. Insurrection at Cadiz, ....... 54

58. The conspiracy is at first arrested by d'Abisbal, ... 65

59. D'Abisbal is deprived of the command of the expedition, . . 56

60. Additional measures of severity on the part of the Government, . ib.

61. Yellow fever at Cadiz, ....... 57

62. Sale of Florida to the Americans, ..... 58

63. Marriage of the king, ....... 59

64. Revolution attempted by Riego, ..... 60

65. Vigorous measures adopted against the insurgents, . . . 61

66. Capture of the arsenal, and expedition of Riego into the interior, . 62

67. Its defeat and failure, ....... 63

68. Perilous position of Quiroga in the Isle of Leon, . . . ib.

69. Insurrection at Corunna, and in Navarre, .... 64

70. Revolution at Madrid: the king accepts the constitution, . . 65

71. Reflections on this revolution, ...... 67

72. Rapid advances of the revolution, ..... 68

73. Reception of the revolution at Barcelona, Valencia, and Cadiz, . ib.

74. Massacre at Cadiz, ....... 69

75. New ministry at Madrid, ...... 70

76. First measures of the new government, . . . . 71

77. Establishment of clubs in Madrid, and other revolutionary measures, ib.

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78. Legislative measures, ......

79. Meeting of the Cortes: its composition,

80. Disorders in the provinces, .

81. Murder of one of the body guard, and reward of the murderei

82. Opening of the Cortes, ......

83. Report on the state of the army, . . . .

84. Majority of tho Cortes: its leaders, . . . .

85. Suppression of the Jesuits, and measures regarding entails, .

86. Financial measures, ......

87. Tumult at Madrid, and dismissal of Riego,

88. Closing of the session, and rupture with tho king,

89. Reception of the decree against the priests in Spain, .

90. Illegal appointment of General Carvajal by tho king, .

91. Return of the king to Madrid, . .

92. Victory of tho revolutionists, .

93. New society for execution of lynch law,

94. Identity of recent history of Spain and Portugal,

95. Revolution at Oporto, ......

96. Which is followed by a revolution at Lisbon, . . .

97. Establishment of a joint regency at Lisbon,

98. Return of Marshal Beresford, who is forced to go to England,

99. Effect of the banishment of the British,

100. Reaction, and adoption of more moderato measures, . .

101. Commencement of reforms in Italy, . . . .

102. Breach of the king's promise of a constitution,

103. Progressive but slight reforms already introduced,

4104. Origin of secret societies, . . . . .

105. Their origin and previous history, .

106. Commencement of the Neapolitan revolution,

107. Defection of General Pepo and the garrison of Naples,

108. The king yields, and swears to the constitution,

109. Causes which prepared revolution in Sicily,

110. Revolution in Palermo, .....

111. Frightful massacre in Palermo, . . . .

112. First measures of the new junta, .

113. Failuro of tho negotiations with Naples,

114. Suppression of the insurrection in Palermo, .

115. Renewal of hostilities, ......

116. Meeting of the Neapolitan parliament,

117. Insurrection of the galley slaves in Civita Vecchia,

118. Commencement of tho revolution in Piedmont,

119. Revolt in Alessandria and Turin, .

120. The king yields, and accepts the constitution,

121. Resignation of the king, and proclamation of the Prince of

regent, and the Spanish constitution,

122. General character of the revolutions of 1820, .

123. What caused their speedy overthrow, .

124. What should the military do in such circumstances?

NICHOLAS IN 1825.

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1. Vast growth and extent of Russia, America, and British India in recent

times, ........ 113

2. Increase of Russia by the treaties of 1814 and 1815, . . . 114

3. Important acquisition of Russia in the grand-duchy of Warsaw, . 115

4. Statisties of the grand-duchy of Warsaw, . . . . 116

5. Establishment of the kingdom of Poland, .... ib.

6. Biography of the Grand-duke Constantino, . . . . 117

7. His character, . . . . . . . .118

8. His first acts of administration, and training of the army, . . 120

9. Great advantage to Poland from its union with Russia, . . 121

10. Great increase of its military strength, . . . . .122

11. Failure of the representative system in Poland, . . . 123

12. Great influence of Russia, . . . . • .124

13. Great wisdom of its external policy, . . . • .125

14. Their unity of purpose, . . . . . . .126

15. Statisties of the empire: its population, .... 127

16. Great rapidity of increase of the Russian population, . . . 129

17. Great room for future increase in its inhabitants, . . . ib.

18. Unity of feeling in the whole empire, . . . . 130

19. Reason of this unity. Their Asiatic habits and religious feelings, . 131

20. Unity of interest in the empire, . . . . 132

21. General insufficiency of the schools to produce enlightenment, . 133

22. The clergy, ........ 134

23. Rank in Russia: the Tchinn, . . . . . .135

24. Great power given by the Tchinn, . . . . .136

25. Caste of tho nobles, . . . . . . 137

26. Of the bourgeois and trading classes, . . . . .138

27. Tho serfs: their number and condition, .... 139

28. Privileges and advantages they enjoy, . . . . . 140

29. The Tieglo: its advantages and evils, . . . . . 141

30. Way in which it is carried into effect, . . • #" •

31. Contrast of English and Russian cultivators, .... 143

32. Opinion of M. Haxthausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement, . 144

33. Evils of the Russian serf system, ..... 145

34. Foreign conquest ever forced upon Russia by its climate, . . 146

35. Fear the universal principlo of government in Russia, . . . 147

36. General use of corporal chastisement, . . . . .148

37. Character which these cimunstances have imprinted on the Russians, 149

38. Causes which havo led to this character, .... 150

39. Great effect of the distances in Russia, . . . . .151

40. Civilisation depends entirely on the higher ranks, . . . 152

41. Strong imitative turn of the Russians, . . . . .153

42. Military strength of Russia, . . . . .154

43. The military colonies, ....... 155

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