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doubts, or a count is required by at least one-fifth of a quorum, he shall name one from each side of the question, to tell the members in the affirmative and negative; which being reported, he shall rise and state the decision.

6. He shall not be required to vote in ordinary legislative proceedings, except where his vote would be decisive, or where the House is engaged in voting by ballot; and in all cases of a tie vote the question shall be lost.

7. He shall have the right to name any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but such substitution shall not extend beyond an adjournment: Provided, however, That in case of his illness, he may make such appointment for a period not exceeding ten days, with the approval of the House at the time the same is made; and in his absence and omission to make such appointment, the House shall proceed to elect a Speaker pro tempore, to act during his absence.

RULE II.

ELECTION OF OFFICERS.

There shall be elected by a viva voce vote at the commence. ment of each Congress, to continue in office until their successors are chosen and qualified, a Clerk, Sergeant-at-Arms, Doorkeeper, Postmaster, and Chaplain, each of whom shall take an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, and for the true and faithful discharge of the duties of his office to the best of his knowledge and ability, and to keep the secrets of the House; and each shall appoint all of the employés of his department provided for by law.

RULE III.

DUTIES OF THE CLERK.

1. The Clerk shall, at the commencement of the first session of each Congress, call the members to order, proceed to call the roll of members by States in alphabetical order, and, pending the election of a Speaker or Speaker pro tempore, call the House to order, preserve order and decorum, and decide all questions of order, subject to appeal by any member.

2. He shall make and cause to be printed and delivered to each member, or mailed to his address, at the commencement of every regular session of Congress, a list of the reports which it is the duty of any officer or Department to make to Congress, referring to the act or resolution and page of the volume of the laws or Journal in which it may be contained, and placing under the name of each officer the list of reports required of him to be made.

3. He shall note all questions of order, with the decisions thereon, the record of which shall be printed as an appendix to the Journal of each session; and complete, as soon after the close of the session as possible, the printing and distribution to members and delegates of the Journal of the House, together with an accurate and complete index; retain in the library at his office, for the use of the members and officers of the House, and not to be withdrawn therefrom, two copies of all the books and printed documents deposited there; send, at the end of each session, a printed copy of the Journal thereof to the executive and to each branch of the legislature of every State and Territory; preserve for and deliver or mail to each member and delegate an extra copy, in good binding, of all documents printed by order of either house of the Congress to which he belonged; attest and affix the seal of the House to all writs, warrants, and subpoenas issued by order of the House, certify to the passage of all bills and joint resolutions, make or approve all contracts, bargains, or agreements relative to furnishing any matter or thing, or for the performance of any labor for the House of Representatives, in pursuance of law or order of the House, keep full and accurate accounts of the disbursements out of the contingent fund of the House, keep the stationery account of members and delegates, and pay them as provided by law.

RULE IV.

DUTIES OF THE SERGEANT-AT-ARMS.

1. It shall be the duty of the Sergeant-at-Arms to attend the House and the Committee of the Whole during their sittings, to maintain order under the direction of the Speaker or

Chairman, and, pending the election of a Speaker or Speaker pro tempore, under the direction of the Clerk; execute the commands of the House, and all processes issued by authority thereof, directed to him by the Speaker; keep the accounts for the pay and mileage of members and delegates, and pay them as provided by law.

2. The symbol of his office shall be the mace, which shall be borne by him while enforcing order on the floor.

3. He shall give bond to the United States, with sureties to be approved by the Speaker, in the sum of fifty thousand dol lars, for the faithful disbursement of all moneys intrusted to him by virtue of his office and the proper discharge of the duties thereof, and no member of Congress shall be approved as such surety.

RULE V.

DUTIES OF THE DOORKEEPER.

1. The Doorkeeper shall enforce strictly the rules relating to the privileges of the hall and be responsible to the House for the official conduct of his employés.

2. At the commencement and close of each session of Congress he shall take an inventory of all the furniture, books, and other public property in the several committee and other rooms under his charge, and report the same to the House, which report shall be referred to the Committee on Accounts to ascertain and determine the amount for which he shall be held liable for missing articles.

3. He shall allow no person to enter the room over the hall of the House during its sittings; and fifteen minutes before the hour for the meeting of the House each day he shall see that the floor is cleared of all persons except those privileged to remain, and kept so until ten minutes after adjournment.

RULE VI.

DUTIES OF THE POSTMASTER.

The Postmaster shall superintend the post-office kept in the Capitol for the accommodation of Representatives, Delegates, and officers of the House, and be held responsible for the prompt and safe delivery of their mail.

RULE VII.

The Chaplain shall attend at the commencement of each day's sitting of the House and open the same with prayer.

RULE VIII.

OF THE MEMBERS.

1. Every member shall be present within the hall of the House during its sittings, unless excused or necessarily prevented; and shall vote on each question put, unless he has a direct personal or pecuniary interest in the event of such question.

2. Pairs shall be announced by the Clerk, after the completion of the second roll-call, from a written list furnished him, and signed by the member making the statement to the Clerk, which list shall be published in the Record as a part of the proceedings, immediately following the names of those not voting: Provided pairs shall be announced but once during the same legislative day.

RULE IX.

QUESTIONS OF PRIVILEGE.

Questions of privilege shall be, first, those affecting the rights of the House collectively, its safety, dignity, and the integrity of its proceedings; second, the rights, reputation, and conduct of members individually in their representative capacity only; and shall have precedence of all other questions, except motions to adjourn.

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1. Unless otherwise specially ordered by the House, the Speaker shall appoint, at the commencement of each Congress, the following standing committees, viz:

On Elections, to consist of fifteen members.

On Ways and Means, to consist of thirteen members.

On Appropriations, to consist of fifteen members.

On Judiciary, to consist of fifteen members.

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On Banking and Currency, to consist of thirteen members. On Coinage, Weights, and Measures, to consist of thirteen members.

On Commerce, to consist of seventeen members.

On Rivers and Harbors, to consist of fifteen members.

On the Merchant Marine and Fisheries, to consist of thirteen members.

On Agriculture, to consist of fifteen members.

On Foreign Affairs, to consist of thirteen members.

On Military Affairs, to consist of thirteen members.

On Naval Affairs, to consist of thirteen members.

On the Post-Office and Post Roads, to consist of fifteen members.

On the Public Lands, to consist of thirteen members.
On Indian Affairs, to consist of thirteen members.
On the Territories, to consist of thirteen members.
On Railways and Canals, to consist of thirteen members.
On Manufactures, to consist of eleven members.

On Mines and Mining, to consist of thirteen members.
On Public Buildings and Grounds, to consist of thirteen mem-
bers.

On Pacific Railroads, to consist of thirteen members.

On Levees and Improvements of the Mississippi River, to consist of thirteen members.

On Education, to consist of thirteen members.

On Labor, to consist of thirteen members.

On the Militia, to consist of thirteen members.

On Patents, to consist of thirteen members.

On Invalid Pensions, to consist of fifteen members.
On Pensions, to consist of thirteen members.

On Claims, to consist of fifteen members.

On War Claims, to consist of thirteen members.

On Private Land Claims, to consist of thirteen members.
On the District of Columbia, to consist of thirteen members.
On Revision of the Laws, to consist of thirteen members.
On Expenditures in the State Department, to consist of seven
members.

On Expenditures in the Treasury Department, to consist of seven members.

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