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CHAPTER IV

MILK PRODUCTS OTHER THAN BUTTER

THE dairy farming “belt” of the United States extends from Vermont and Massachusetts southward and westward including New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, southern Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Many other states have very considerable numbers of dairy cattle, and each of the Pacific coast states has certain areas which are largely devoted to dairy farming. Outside of the “ dairy belt” and the limited dairy districts of California, Oregon, and Washington dairy cattle are numerous in total numbers but not sufficiently concentrated to support much large-scale manufacture of milk products. Texas and Missouri each has a larger number of dairy cattle than has Vermont; but Vermont has a larger number of cows per farm than has any other state and supports intensive commercial dairying as Texas and Missouri do not. (See Fig. 8, from Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture for 1922.)

To only a limited extent as yet do we find dairy farming developed at great distances from centers of population for the exclusive purpose of supporting the manufacture of milk products. More commonly the manufacture of these products begins in (or on the margin of) the market milk region, using the seasonal surplus of the market milk farms and thus resulting in a gradual intensification and extension of the original“ dairy belt.”

According to official estimates of the United States Department of Agriculture (Yearbook for 1922) about 46 billion pounds of milk per year are used in the United States for manufacture

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Fig. 8. — Distribution of dairy cattle in the United States in 1920. Each dot represents 2000 dairy cattle. United States

Department of Agriculture Yearbook for 1922.

of milk products. Of this much the largest part, about 35 billion pounds, goes into butter making, yielding about 1,700,000,000 pounds of butter or about 16 pounds per capita per year. Our further study of butter will be taken up in connection with other edible fats in Chapter X. The other three chief manufactured products of milk are: (1) cheese, (2) condensed and evaporated milk, (3) ice cream. Each of these three industries uses about three and one half billion pounds of milk per year. This makes annually for each inhabitant of the United States about 2 gallons of ice cream, about 3.5 pounds of cheese, and about 14 pounds of condensed or evaporated milk. A considerable part of the latter, however, is either exported or used in the manufacture of other foods. The manufacture of all these products fluctuates with market conditions, but the general trend is toward increased production.

Cheese Cheese was probably the first commercial product manufactured from milk and the first form in which milk was preserved for future use upon any large scale. It has for centuries been an important article of diet in many countries, and is made in a great variety of forms. Doane and Lawson describe no less than 350 varieties of cheese.

Until the middle of the last century the making of cheese was a household or farm industry. The first cheese factory was started by Jesse Williams, a farmer of Oneida County, New York, who, finding that his cheese sold readily at more than the average price, began in 1851 to buy the milk of his neighbors and manufacture cheese from it as well as from the milk produced on his own farm. Within fifteen years his example had been followed to such an extent that there were about five hundred cheese factories in New York State alone.

It is estimated that in 1850 there was made in the United States about 100,000,000 pounds of cheese, all of it on farms or

in the household; in 1920, about 350,000,000 pounds, of which 98 per cent was made in factories.

About two thirds of this cheese was made in Wisconsin, the larger part of the remainder in New York, while small amounts were contributed by several other states, including (quite recently) some of the mountain sections of the South.

Including that imported, the total cheese consumption in the United States is only 31 to 4 pounds per person per year, a low figure in comparison with the amounts of meat and butter consumed. During the past few years the United States Department of Agriculture has given considerable attention to the cheese industry and to the use of cheese as a food, and it is probable that this will result in a larger per capita consumption of cheese for the country as a whole.

Cheese is roughly divided into two main types: the hard cheeses such as Cheddar, Edam, Emmental (or Swiss), Parmesan, and Roquefort; and the soft cheeses such as Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola, Limburg, Neufchâtel, and Stilton.

Much the largest part of the cheese made in this country is of the type of the Cheddar cheese and is therefore properly known as American Cheddar cheese, although frequently called simply “ American cheese ” or, in the trade, “ standard factory cheese.” In addition to this standard type of cheese smaller quantities of other types are made. Some New York factories make cheeses of the Brie, Camembert, and Neufchâtel types, while cheeses of the Swiss and of the Limburg types are made in Wisconsin and Swiss cheese in California.

The principal importations of cheese into the United States are of Parmesan and Gorgonzola cheese from Italy; Emmental cheese from Switzerland; Roquefort, Camembert, and Brie, from France; and Edam cheese from Holland. Many other varieties are imported in small amounts.

Exportations of cheese from these countries were naturally much reduced during the war. In fact from 1915 to 1918 America exported more cheese than it imported. Since the war, both imports and exports have been small, the American market being supplied essentially by cheeses of American manufacture, among which those of the Cheddar type predominate, while other types are growing in importance as the methods of making them are improved.

Manufacture of American Cheddar Cheese This process is divided into several fairly distinct steps as follows: (1) inspection of milk, (2) ripening of milk, (3) addition of color — when color is used, (4) coagulating the milk, (5) cutting the curd, (6) stirring and heating the curd, (7) removing whey, (8) cheddaring the curd, (9) milling the curd, (10) salting and pressing the curd, (11) ripening or curing the cheese.

Inspection of milk. Each can of milk received for cheese making should be examined for acidity, dirt, and abnormal flavors (odor or taste). Sometimes a rapid examination by the senses of sight and smell is deemed sufficient; sometimes a roughly quantitative determination of the acidity is made. When the cheese maker is troubled with abnormal fermentation or defective curd, it may be necessary for him to make a test of each farmer's milk to determine the nature of the fermentation which it shows and of the curd which it yields, in order that the particular milk which is responsible for the trouble may be located and excluded.

Ripening of milk. This consists in keeping the milk at about 86° F. (30 °C.) until the desired amount of lactic acid has formed. “Starters,” consisting of commercial cultures of lactic acid bacteria or of milk in active lactic acid fermentation, are sometimes added to facilitate the ripening process. The lactic acid is important in its influence on the operations of cheese making, and its presence also tends to repress abnormal fermentations. The proper degree of ripeness is judged either by titrating for

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