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kunde und Infectionskrankheiten, II Abtheil, Vol. 25, pages 161-178 (1909).

Rogers. Fermented Milks. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry, Circular 171 (1o11).

Hohenadel. Yoghurt, with especial Reference to Yoghurt Dried Preparations. Archivfiir Hygiene, Vol. 78, pages 193-218 (1913).

Rogers. Fermented Milks. United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 319 (1915).

Van Slyke and Bosworth. Chemical Changes in the Souring of Milk. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 24, pages 191-202 (1916).

Hammar and Hauser. Fermented Milk. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, Circular No. 54 (1918).

Baker, Brew, and Conn. Relation between Lactic Acid Production and Bacterial Growth in the Souring of Milk. New York Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), Technical Bulletin No. 74 (1919).

Cheplin, Fulmer, and Barney. Therapeutic Application of Bacillus A cidophilus Milk. Journal of the A merican Medical A ssociation, Vol. 80, pages 1896-1899 (1923); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 17, page 3374.

Morriss. The Use of Bacillus Acidophilus Milk in a Tuberculosis Sanitorium. Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 81, pages 93-97 (1923)

Condensed and Dried Milks

Booth. Dry Milk. Chemical Engineer, October, 1905.

Hissey. (Use of Dried Milk as an Infant Food in Summer.) Archiv fur Kinderheilkunde, Vol. 46, pages 63-95 (1907).

Merrill. Economic Reasons for the Reduction of Milk to Powder. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 1, pages 540-545 (1909)

Jordan and Mott. Condensed Milk and Its Value for General Use and

for Infant Feeding. American Journal of Public Hygiene, Vol. 20,

pages 391-402 (1910). Ballner and Von Stockert. Milk Powder. Zeitschrift fiir Untersuchung

der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, Vol. 22, pages 648-651 (1911). Fleming. Analysis of Dried Milk and Cream (with results on 10 samples).

Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 4, pages 543-544

(1912).

Stewart. On Some Dried Milks and Patent Foods. Original Communications, 8th International Congress of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 18, pages 329-338 (1912).

Kuhl. Dried Milk Products. Hygienische Rundschau, Vol. 23, pages 709-713 (io13)

Wells. Condensed and Desiccated Milk. United States Department of Agriculture, Yearbook for 1912, pages 335-344 (1913).

Delepine. The Effects of Certain Condensing and Drying Processes Used in Ihe Preservation of Milk upon its Bacterial Contents. Report to the Local Government Boards, Food Report No. 21 (1914); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 9, page 2115 (1915).

Coots. Upon an Inquiry as to the Dried Milks with Special Reference to Their Use in Infant Feeding. Great Britain Local Governments Board Food Reports, No. 24, pages 1-137 (1918).

Winfleld. Some Investigations Bearing on the Nutritive Value of Dried Milk. Great Britain Local Governments Board Food Reports, No. 24, pages 139-156 (1918); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 12, page 2388.

Street. Condensed or Evaporated Milks, Malted Milks, and Milk Ponders. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 213, pages 399407 (1910)

Rogers, Deysher, and Evans. Factors Influencing the Viscosity of Sweetened Condensed Milk. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 3, pages 468-485 (1920).

Stevenson, Peck, and Rhynus. Reconstructed Milk. Public Health

Reports, Vol. 35, pages 2011-2045 (1920). Blackham. Dried Milk as a Food. Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute,

Vol. 41, pages 84-04 (1921). Editorial. Simplification of the Intestinal Flora. Journal of the American

Medical Association, Vol. 77, pages 626-627 (1921). Hume. Antiscorbutic Value of Full Cream Sweetened Condensed Milk.

Biochemical Journal, Vol. 15, pages 163-166 (1921). Clark and Collins. Dried Milk Pouder in Infant Feeding. Public Health

Reports, Vol. 37, pages 2415-2433 (1922). Rosenau. Vitamins in Milk (including consideration of condensed and

dried milks). Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, May 5, 1921. Dried Milks. Report of Committee on Nutritional Problems to American

Public Health Association. A merican Journal of Public Health, February,

1922.

Mcdge and Rich. An Interesting Nutrition Experiment. The Nation's Health, Vol. 4, pages 509-510 (1922).

Polet and Lecocq. Food Value (Vitamins) of Cows' Milk in Its Commercial Forms. Oeuvre nationale de I'Enfance, Vol. 3, page 765 (1922); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 17, page 154.

Baldwin. Condensed Milk. American Food Journal, Vol. 18, pages 527528 (1923).

Cavanaugh, Dutcher, and Hail. The Effect of the Spray Process of

Drying on the Vitamin C Content of Milk. American Journal of the

Diseases of Children, Vol. 25, pages 498-502 (1923). Rice and Miscall. Copper in Dairy Products and Its Solution in Milk

under Various Conditions. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 6, pages 261

277 (1923)

Soumer and Hart. The Heat Coagulation of Milk. Journal of Dairy

Science, Vol. 5, pages 5*5-543 (1923)Supplee. Progress of the Powdered Milk Industry. Improvement in

Methods of Milk Powder Production Goes Forward as Consumption

of Product Increases. American Food Journal, Vol. 18, pages 115-116.

156 (1923).

Wolf and Sherwin. The Value of Sweetened Condensed Milk as a Food for Babies. Archives of Pediatrics, June, 1923.

Cream, Ice Cream, and Lacto

Melick. Variations in Fat Content of Separator Cream. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 137 (1906).

Wiley. Ice Cream. United States Public Health Service, Hygienic Laboratory, Bulletin 56, pages 249-312 (1909).

Alexander. Effect of Gelatin in Ice Cream. Zeitschrift fiir Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide, Vol. 5, pages 101-103 (1909).

White. The Grading of Cream. United States Department of Agriculture, Yearbook for 1910, pages 275-280 (1910).

Mortensen and Gordon. Lacto: A New and Healthful Frozen Dairy Product. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 118 (1911).

Pennington, Hepburn, et al. Bacterial and Enzymic Changes in Milk and Cream at 0° C. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 16, pages 331-368 (1913).

Ayers and Johnson. A Bacteriological Study of Retail Ice Cream. United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 303 (1915); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 10, page 227.

Holdaway and Reynolds. Effects of Binders upon the Melting and Hardness of Ice Cream. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 2i1, pages 3-19 (1916); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 11, page 1004 (1917).

Mortensen. Factors which Influence the Yield and Consistency of Ice Cream. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 180, pages 261-283 (1918).

Ellenberger. Study of Bacteria in Ice Cream during Storage. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 18, pages 331-362 (1019)

Hammar and Sanders. A Bacteriological Study of the Method of Pasteurizing and Homogenizing the Ice Cream Mix. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 186 (1919).

Redfield. Remade Milk and Cream. 32 pages. Published by International Association of Dairy and Milk Inspectors, May, 1919.

Cross. Standardizing Calculations of Ice Cream Mix. Creamery and Milk Plant Monthly, Vol. 9, No. 11, pages 50-53 (1920).

Washburn. What is a Fair Standard for Ice Cream? Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 4, pages 231-239 (1921).

Zoiler. Rotating Thermocouple and Cold Junction for Temperature Studies in Commercial Ice Cream Machines. Ice Cream Trade Journal, Vol. 17, No. 8, pages 40-43 (1921).

. Separation of Ice in Freezing Ice Cream. Ice Cream Trade Journal,

Vol. 17, No. 9, pages 45-47; No. 10, pages 50-52 (1921).

Babcock. The Whipping Quality of Cream. United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 1075 (1922).

Williams. Proportioning the Ingredients for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Products by the Balance Method. United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 1123 (1922).

Hartson. Some Facts about Powdered Milk. The American Food Journal, Vol. 18, pages 368-369 (1923).

Tracy. A Study of the Use of Superheated and Unsuperheated Plain Condensed Bulk Skim Milk in the Manufacture of Ice Cream. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 6, pages 205-221 (1923).

Williams and Campbell. Effect of Composition on the Palatability of Ice Cream. United States Department of Agriculture, Department Bulletin No. 1161 (1923).

Smith. Vitamins in Ice Cream. Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 79, pages 2221-2222 (1922).

CHAPTER V

EGGS

Doubtless eggs of various kinds were among the very earliest of human foods. At the present time only the eggs of hens, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, and turkeys are commonly used for food; and of these, hens' eggs are so much more abundant than all others that, unless otherwise explained, all statements made here may be understood as referring to hens' eggs.

Production

The production of eggs is widely distributed. It is estimated that about nine tenths of all farms in the United States keep chickens and produce eggs. It will be seen from Fig. 9 that in poultry culture there is less tendency toward concentration in particular regions than is the case with many other food industries.

It is difficult to measure the egg production of the country, because eggs are so largely consumed by the producer or sold at retail without going through trade channels from which accurate statistics can be obtained. The United States Census Bureau estimates the egg industry at seventeen and one half dozen eggs per capita per year, i.e. an average of 210 eggs per year or 4 eggs per week for each person in the United States.

Pennington and Pierce, writing in 1910,1 reported that only the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Texas, Tennessee, and Kentucky produce more eggs than are consumed within their own borders, and this

1 United States Department of Agriculture, Yearbook for 1910.

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