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CHAPTER VIII

GRAIN PRODUCTS

In nearly every part of the world some form of breadstuff or other food made from grain is found to be the largest single item, not as to cost but as source of energy, in the food supply — in this sense the staff of life. This is because grain crops are easily grown and, once the seeds are fully matured, they are easily stored and can be kept a long time with little danger of loss from spoilage; and by processes which need not be elaborate or expensive the grains can be brought into the form of palatable, wholesome, and economical food.

According to the estimates of Alsberg and of Cooper and Spillman an average day's labor of a farmer devoted to wheat growing by American methods produces enough protein and calories of human food to maintain a man for a year.

Osborne and Mendel quote from Hopkins: "Circumstances have to be very exceptional indeed when the growing of cereals does not yield an energy supply for the worker at less cost and with less relative effort than any other method of food production. Economic and social factors usually tend to make bread by far the most convenient form in which the cereals can reach the individual consumer. The nations of the West have acquired the habit of demanding a well-piled loaf, and for this the special properties of wheat gluten seem necessary. Hence the reliance on wheat in the West."

If, however, we consider the world as a whole, rice far surpasses wheat in popularity and in the contribution which it makes to the feeding of the human race. It is estimated that for half of

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