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2. Enough protein of suitable sorts to meet all needs for essential amino acids.

3. Adequate amounts and proper proportions of the mineral elements or ash constituents of the food.

4. Enough of each of at least three kinds of vitamins. Modern commerce offers us a bewildering array of articles of

food ranging from those which contribute to only one of the nutritive needs to those which supply them all. Only by applying a fairly comprehensive knowledge of food products may one hope to be able to make such use of what the market offers as to provide the most satisfactory food supply to the best advantage of health and purse. Any adequate conception of food study must consider the contribution which food makes both to the immediate satisfaction and to the ultimate health of the consumer; it should also hold in due regard the conservation both of the financial resources of the individual and the food resources of the community or of the race as a whole.

REFERENCES

American Public Health Association, Report of Committee on Nutritional Problems, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 10, pages 8688 (1920).

Armsby. The Conservation of Food Energy.

——. The Modern Science of Food Values. The Yale Review, Vol. 9,

pages 330-345 (1920). Armstrong. The Simple Carbohydrates and the Glucosides. Atwater. Methods and Results of Investigation on the Chemistry and

Economy of Food. Bulletin 21 of the Office of Experiment Stations

of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Chittenden. The Nutrition of Man.
Eddy. The Vitamin Manual.
Ellis and Macleod. Vital Factors in Food.
Funk. The Vitamins.

Hopkins. Influence of Accessory Constituents of Diet upon Growth.

Journal of Physiology, Vol. 44, pages 425-460 (1912).
Howell. Textbook of Physiology.
Leathes. The Fats.

Lewkowttsch. Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Waxes. Lcsk. Elements of the Science of Nutrition.

Mccollum. Some Essentials to a Safe Diet. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, Vol. 74, pages 95-102 (1917).

. Nutrition and Physical Efficiency. Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 189, pages 421-440 (1920).

. Series of Articles in Hygeia, the Journal of Individual and Community Health, published by the American Medical Association, Vol. 1 (1923)

Mendel. Nutrition, the Chemistry of Life.
Osborne. The Vegetable Proteins.

Osborne and Mendel. Feeding Experiments with Isolated Food Substances.
Pearl. The Nation's Food.

Pltmmer. The Chemical Constitution of the Proteins.
Rose. Feeding the Family.

. Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics.

Sherman. Chemistry of Food and Nutrition.

. Food Chemistry in the Service of Human Nutrition. Journal of

Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 10, pages 383-300 (1918).

. Permanent Gains from the Food Conservation Movement. Columbia University Quarterly, Vol. 21, pages 1-14 (1919); Reprinted as Lesson 139 in the Cornell Reading Course for the Home (July, 1921).

. Protein, Phosphorus and Calcium Requirements of Maintenance

in Man. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 41, pages 97-109 and 173-179; Vol. 44. pages 21-27 (1920).

Sherman and Smith. The Vitamins.

CHAPTER II

THE FOOD INDUSTRY AND ITS CONTROL

The purpose of this chapter is to consider briefly the economic status of the food industry as a whole, the importance of food as a factor in the cost of living, the reasons for legal control of the food industry in behalf of the consuming public, the chief features of the food laws and the methods and standards which have been adopted for their enforcement, and the marked tendency to standardization and scientific control on the part of trade organizations within the food industries themselves.

The individual foods and food industries discussed in subsequent chapters can be studied with most interest against a background of general survey of the food industry as a whole, of the principles underlying our food laws and standards, of the extent to which such laws can and cannot insure the nutritive value of the food, and of the general safety and wholesomeness from the sanitary standpoint of the foods now offered to the consumer.

Some Economic Features of the Food Supply

More than half the total value of natural products of the United States is represented by the food products, whose annual value is about twice that of all other farm products and over twice that of the combined products of the mines and forests.

The products of the mines and forests may be subjected to more elaborate processes of manufacture and so may be increased in value in greater ratio before reaching the consumer than are the food products; but even so we find from the census returns that in value of finished as well as of natural products the food industries lead all others. Among the manufactures, as classified by the United States Census, the greatest is that of slaughtering and meat packing. The annual product of the meat-packing establishments exceeds in value that of the foundries and machine shops. The product of the flour and grist mills is about equal in value to that of either the rolling mills, the lumber mills, or the cotton mills of the country.

The enormous size to which many of the food manufacturing establishments have grown during recent years (as for example a sugar refinery turning out daily from 1,000,000 to 3,000,000 pounds of sugar, or a butter factory producing 25,000 pounds of butter per day) makes it possible to effect great economies or make great advances, through what are apparently quite modest improvements in process or product. Hence the food industries are rapidly being brought under scientific control for the sake of economy in processes, improvement of staple products, and advantageous utilization of by-products.

A recent official report of the Bureau of Chemistry quotes United States Census Statistics for 1910 as showing 67,453 establishments engaged in the manufacture of food products with an output valued at $13,391,914,000 for the year. The fraction of this output which consists of by-products other than foods is more than offset by the great volume of nonmanufactured foods, such as milk, eggs, fresh fruits and vegetables, fresh fish, and the like. A part of the output of food products is of course exported.

With the food industries tending more and more to become highly centralized commercial enterprises and with a decreasing percentage of the people in position to produce any considerable fraction of their own food, it is natural that consumers have sought to safeguard their food supply through legislation, and this not only as a health measure but as an economic measure as well.

"Half the struggle of life is a struggle for food " in the sense that a majority of the world's people must spend as much of their time or their earnings in providing themselves with adequate food as with all other necessities combined. A family in comfortable circumstances may spend as much for rent and (too often perhaps) as much for clothing as for food; but the food is more nearly a fixed requirement than are the other items of the cost of living, so that as we pass to the larger numbers of families who must live on smaller incomes we find that while expenditures for food are less than in well-to-do families of the same size, yet in general it is not feasible to diminish the expenditure for food in the same ratio that the income is diminished, so that the smaller the income the larger the proportion of it that goes for food1 until in the typical family of a laboring man or clerk practically half the entire income is often spent for food and must be if the health and efficiency of the family are to be maintained. Or as one writer puts it: "The less the worker gains the more he must invest in food, renouncing of necessity all other desires."

Naturally, therefore, consumers must have an intense interest in their food supply. But with the development of modern industry population has concentrated in cities and towns to such an extent that the majority of people have ceased to produce any appreciable part of their own food or even to obtain it from their immediate neighbors. Most people must buy practically all of their food, and the food is brought from greater and greater distances and distributed under conditions which make it increasingly difficult for the consumer to exercise any direct individual control over the methods by which his food is produced and handled. When the majority of the people in any community find themselves in this position, they naturally

1 Andrews's Economics of the Household (1923) contains an excellent compilation and discussion of studies of the cost of living and the distribution of the income at different economic levels, including both the classical and the most recent data.

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