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Eder. Action of Coffee on the Activity of the Stomachs of Ruminants.

Inaugural Dissertation, Giessen, 1912. HolungWorth. Influence of Caffeine on Mental and Motor Efficiency.

New York: The Science Press, 1912. Saiant. The Toxicity of Caffeine. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry, Bulletin 148 (1912). Taylor. Effects of Coffee Drinking upon Children. Psychological Clinic,

Vol. 6, pages 56-58 (1912). Bainbridge and Davies. The Essential Oil of Cocoa. Journal of the

Chemical Society (London), Vol. 101, pages 2200-2221 (1912). Read. Detection of Artificial Color in Tea. Original Communications,

8th International Congress of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 18, pages 301

303 (1912).

Aborn. Better Coffee Making. Tea and Coffee Trade Journal, Vol. 25,

pages 568-574 (1913)Salant and Rteger. Elimination and Toxicity of Caffeine in Nephrecto

mized Rabbits. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of

Chemistry, Bulletin 166 (1913). Sawamura. Manufacture of Tea. Original Communications, 8th International Congress of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 18, pages 313-322 (1912). Importation and Inspection of Tea under Act of March 2, i897. United States

Treasury Department, T. D. 33211 (1913). Burmann. Chemical and Physiological Investigation of the Noxious

Principles of Roasted Coffee. Bulletin generate Therapeutique, Vol. 166,

pages 379-400 (1914). Doepmann. Malt Coffee. Zeitschrift ftir Untersuchung der Nahrungs

und Genussmittel, Vol. 27, pages 453-466 (1914). Salant and Rieger. Influence of Caffeine on the Elimination of Creatin

and Creatinine. American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 33, pages 186

203 (1914).

Schulte. The Methods of Tea, Cocoa, Coffee and Tobacco Fermentations.

Zeitschrift fur Untersuchung der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, Vol. 27,

pages 209-225 (1914). Doolittle and Wright. Effect of Storage on Coffee. American Food

Journal, Vol. 10, pages 473~474 (1ois)Rammstedt. Matte or Parana Tea. Pharmaceutische Zentralhalle, Vol. 56,

pages 20-34 (1915); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 10, page 1561. Trigg. Coffee Roasting. Tea and Coffee Trade Journal, Vol. 37, pages

170-172 (1919); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 13, page 2940. . The Chemistry of Tea. I, II. Caffeine and Related Compounds.

Tea and Coffee Trade Journal, Vol. 40, pages 459-461, 606-608 (1921).

Trigg. The Chemistry of Tea. Ill, IV. Tea and Coffee Trade Journal,

Vol. 41, pages 48-50, 182-184 (1921). Usher. Tea (a series of articles beginning). Journal of Home Economics,

Vol. 13, pages 127-131 (1921). Van Marle. How Soluble Coffee is Made. Tea and Coffee Trade Journal,

Vol. 41, pages 162-166 (1921). Trigg. The Chemistry of Tea. V. Tannin in Manufactured Tea. Tea

and Coffee Trade Journal, Vol. 43, pages 684-686 (1922).

Other Beverages

Crampton and Tolman. Changes taking Place in Whiskey Stored in Wood. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 30, pages 98-136 (1908).

Mezger. Alcohol-free Beverages. Zeitschrift fur Untersuchung der Nahr

ungs- und Genussmittel, Vol. 15, pages 14-19 (1908). Barnard. Temperance Beers. Indiana State Board of Health, Bulletin 12,

pages 95-96 (1909)Adams. The Distillation of Whiskey. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 2, pages 34-42 (1910). Micko. Rum, Brandy, Arrak, Cognac. Zeitschrift fiir Untersuchung der

Nahrungs- und Genussmiitel, Vol. 19, pages 305-322 (1910). Bioletti. The Principles of Wine-making. California Agricultural

Experiment Station, Bulletin 213 (1911). Lintner. The Flavoring and Aromatic Constituents of Beer. Zeitschrift

fiir das gesammte Brauwesen, Vol. 34, pages 586-589, 601-603 (1911). Young and Sherwood. Effect of the Environment of Carbonated Beverages on Bacteria. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry,

Vol. 3, pages 495-496 (1911). Gibbs and Agconj. Philippine Fermented Beverages. Philippine Journal

of Science, Vol. 7, pages 97-119 (1912). Baragiola and Boller. So-called Alcohol-free Wines of Commerce.

Zeitschrift fiir Untersuchung der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, Vol. 26,

pages 369-408 (1913). Bioletti. Clarification of Grape Juice. Report, College of Agriculture,

University of California, 1914, pages 190-191; Chemical Abstracts,

Vol. 10, pages 2250-2251 (1916). Sale and Skinner. Composition and Food Value of Bottled Soft Drinks.

United States Department of Agriculture, Yearbook for 1918, pages

115-122 (1919).

Vinegar

Browne. Effects of Fermentation upon the Composition of Cider and Vinegar. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 25, pages 16-33 (1903)

Leach and Lythgoe. Cider Vinegar and Suggested Standards of Purity.

Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 26, pages 375-382 (1904). Van Slyke. A Study of the Chemistry of Homemade Cider Vinegar.

New York Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva, N. Y.), Bulletin

258 (1904).

Woodman and Shtngler. Composition of American Malt Vinegar. Technology Quarterly, Vol. 19, pages 404-447 (1907).

Balcom. Reports on Vinegar. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry, Bulletin 132, page 93, and Bulletin 137, page 57 (1910-1911).

Bender. Report on Vinegar. United States Department of Agriculture,

Bureau of Chemistry, Bulletin 152, pages 125-127 (1913). Tolman and Goodnow. Composition of Cider Vinegars Made by the

Generator Process. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry,

Vol. 5, pages 928-933 (1913). Wostenfeld and Foehr. Tables for the Determination of Yields in

Vinegar Manufactories. Deutsches Essigindustrie, Vol. 16, pages

361-362, 375-376 (1913)Mcgill. Vinegar (Analyses of different kinds sold in Canada). Canada

Inland Revenue Laboratory (Ottawa), Bulletin 313 (1915). Cruess. Vinegar from Waste Fruits. California Agricultural Experiment

Station, Bulletin 287 (1917). Hartman and Tolman. Vinegar Investigations. A Study of the Changes

that Cider Undergoes during Fermentation and Prolonged Storage, and

Its Subsequent Conversion into Vinegar in Rotating Generators.

Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 9, pages 759-762

(1917)

Orange Vinegar instead of Apple. California Citrograph, Vol. 3, page 257

(1918); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 13, page 146 (1919).

Hassack. Vinegar Manufacture in the United States. Chemical Age (New York), Vol. 29, pages 105-109 (1921).

General

Cook. The Partition of the Nitrogen of Plant, Yeast and Meat Extracts. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 36, pages 1551-1556 (1914).

Phalen. Technology of Salt Making in the United States. United States Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 146 (1917).

Benedict and Benedict. The Energy Content of Extra Foods. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 179, pages 153-162 (1918); Vol. 181, pages 415-422 (1919)

Hawk, Smith, and Holder. Baker's Yeast as Food for Man. American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 48, pages 199-210 (1919); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 13, page 1088.

Hirschfelder. Simple Method for Administration of Iodides in the Food in Goiterous Regions. Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 79, pages 1426-1427 (1922).

Mukltn and Mattill. The Laxative Action of Yeast. American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 64, pages 275-294 (1923); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 17, page 2730.

Serger. Artificial Sweetening (Saccharin) and Its Use in the Fruit Preservation Industry. Chemiker Zeitung, Vol. 47, pages 98-100, 123-124, 145-146 (1923).

CHAPTER XIII

FOOD BUDGETS AND FOOD ECONOMICS
The Problem of the Best Use of Food

Several of the foregoing chapters include statistical estimates of the money values of the annual products of particular food industries, and in some cases the discussion of the place of food in the diet has included suggestions as to the desirable proportion which the expenditure for the food in question should bear to the total expenditure for food. The data thus far given have, however, not been sufficiently comprehensive or systematic to constitute either a record of the food budget of the people as a whole, or a complete recommendation as to what the food budget of an individual or a family should be. Full discussion of this subject, especially if approached from the standpoint of the science of nutrition, would lead us farther into the field of dietetics than belongs to the scope of this book; but some consideration of it from the standpoint of food economics seems essential to the proper rounding out of the general study of food products to which this book is devoted. In this concluding chapter, therefore, an attempt will be made to summarize the place of each of the most important articles or types of food in the food budget and to indicate, from the results of actual experience, the effects which differences in food selection may be expected to exert upon the nutritive value and economy of the diet as a whole.

As pointed out in Chapter I the requirements of nutrition, and therefore the factors of food value, may be summarized, from the point of view with which we are concerned in the present

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