Liberalism, Fascism, Or Social Democracy: Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe
This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins and outcomes of the political development in the individual nations. In Britain, France, and Switzerland, countries with a unified middle class, liberal forces established political hegemony before World War I. By coopting considerable sections of the working class with reforms that weakened union movements, liberals essentially excluded the fragmented working class from the political process, remaining in power throughout the inter-war period. In countries with a strong, cohesive working class and a fractured middle class, Luebbert points out, a liberal solution was impossible. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, political coalitions of social democrats and the "family peasantry" emerged as a result of the First World War, leading to social democratic governments. In Italy, Spain, and Germany, on the other hand, the urban middle class united with a peasantry hostile to socialism to facilitate the rise of fascism.
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LiberalLabor Alliances in Britain France
Cleavage Structures and the Failure of Liberal Movements in Late
The Break with Liberalism and the Formation
Liberal and Aliberal
War Crisis and the Stabilization of the Liberal Order
Liberalisms Final Failure
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agrarian workers agricultural aliberal societies alliance allies anticlerical became Belgium Britain British candidates Catholic central class conflict cleavages coalition coherent confederation conservative constitutional Copenhagen council crises Danish decade democracy Denmark dictatorship dominance economic effective election electoral employers especially established Europe failure family peasants fascism federations Folketing fraction France franchise French Germany Giolitti History Ibid industrial institutions interwar Italian Italy labor force labor market labor movement leaders leadership less Lib-Labism liberal order Liberal party majority mass membership ment middle classes mobilization National Liberals Netherlands Norway organization organizational parliamentary parliamentary sovereignty peasantry percent policies prewar Princeton proletariat Radicals reformist regime Republic Riksdag rural Scandinavia seats sectors SFIO Social Democratic party social reform socialist parties sought Spain Spanish stabilization Stockholm strike success suffrage Sweden Swedish Switzerland syndicalist tion trade unions traditional union movement University Press Venstre vote voters wages working-class movement
Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics: An Introduction
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