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have deterred many young men from matriculating. Yet it is true that no year since the foundation of the institution has there been a greater number of scholars than at present. It is also an additional satisfaction that the committee are assured that with the progressive state of the repairs of the College edifice, all the professorships are now filled with able and efficient professors. The fastidious schoolman will now cease to find cause of derision, and the pride of the Georgian may escape mortification.

The committee would respectfully ask one other consideration of the Legislature. The subjects which are now, and have hitherto been taught in Franklin College, though extensive and solid, are purely elementary. Intelligence cannot be conceived to exist, without the acquisition of a greater part of them. An education afforded by a College or University, should not stop at mere elements. Higher studies should be introduced to occupy the time that intervenes between youth and manhood, between the years when parental caution would exclude the Pupil from too close a contact with the world, and those in which a professional noviciate can be entered upon with advantage, or the society of men enjoyed. Among such studies stand pre-eminent Grecian Literature and the higher branches of Mathematics. The former opens the door to the most perfect Literature the world has ever known, to the finest models of style, and exquisite instances of taste.-The latter are boundless in their applications, and so much a matter of liberal knowledge, that an acquaintance with them may fairly be considered indispensable in every scheme of finished education.

In adverting to these higher studies, the Committee do not intend to ask at present for the creation of suitable professorships for them. The spirit of improvement which so laudably and enthusiastically actuate the community, will eventually discover their importance, and the single suggestion of their intimate connection with comprehensive intelligence and the philosophy.of motion, will insure such an investigation of their usefulness, among the guardians of the literature of the State, as to carry conviction to the mind of every one not predetermined to oppose it, that such professorships are essentially necessary for the more complete organization of the College.

The Committee beg leave respectfully to suggest the importance of [a] thorough acquaintance of the higher branches of Mathematics to the single subject of Internal Improvement, a subject in which we should all be concerned. We

should feel an interest in the investigation of any and every scheme calculated to monopolize any of the advantages resulting from great undertakings, which may tend to defraud us of our just proportions of their advantages. In the application of science to the researches of this character, the advantages ultimately to be derived from machines whether propelled by animal, by steam or any other power, on railways, ordinary roads, canals or other water courses :-the subject for investigation, as in all other departments of science, is the accurate ascertainment of the relation which must always exist between an effect, and the cause producing it; in this enquiry must be ascertained the relation existing between the mass to be transported over a certain distance in a given time, and the cause producing that effect. Various circumstances may modify these results, and these circumstances no less than the general principles themselves, can be estimated with any accuracy and precision by mathematical science alone.

Your Committee are not unapprised of the great value arising from a fixed or permanent system of education in our State, where all orders and ranks of society may be equally entitled to a participation in this blessing.

It is believed by your Committee, the plan recommended by the board of Trustees is not one well calculated to enlist the good feelings of the people. That it is a plan very invidious in its policy, cannot be denied, and wholly violative of the great principles of equality. Therefore, in every appearance well calculated to sow seeds of strife and contention in every part of our State. It is, nevertheless the fact, the State has heretofore made liberal endowments for the education of indigent youth of our State, by patronizing schools of almost every description, in every section of the State. It is confidently believed by your Committee that novelty is that kind [of] attraction which too often supersedes merit. And it would be more congenial to the spirit of our institutions to keep down monopolies of every description, by studiously endeavoring to avoid creating undue as well as unnecessary distinctions among our fellow-citizens.

Your Committee have no hesitancy in believing the plan recommended by the Board of Trustees, is well calculated to impair the confidence of public opinion in our county Academies and schools predicated on the poor school plan. Your Committee furthermore believe that the public funds of the State, which is undeniably the property of all, should not be taken and appropriated exclusively to such an extrava

gant extent, to the benefit of any one institution, located in any section of our community to the disparagement of other institutions equally meritorious. Your Committee have no hesitancy in giving it as their opinion, that well regulated. Academies, accompanied with the present advantages of the poor school plan, is one, if persevered in, will redound in incalculable advantages to society at large. Therefore, your Committee most respectfully recommend the following resolutions :

Resolved, That the sum recommended to be set apart as an annual permanent endowment for the education of onc poor boy from each county in this State, be withheld, and if any further appropriations be necessary to extend the principles of education to the poorer classes of our fellow-citizens, that it be based on the principles of equality, and not those of mere selection or distinction.

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A tabular statement, hereto annexed, will exhibit the amount of dividends yielded by the academic and poor school funds, the proportions in which they have been distributed, the extent to which each county has heen endowed, and the number [of] beneficiaries, so far as could be ascertained by the returns from each county. The view here exhibited, although imperfect, will enable the enquirer to calculate prospectively the reliance which his county has upon the munificence of the State for time to come.

The Committee are persuaded that no difference of opinion can exist as to the importance of the primary schools in the State, and a strict accountability in the disbursement of the poor school fund. A uniform method of conducting, managing and instructing, cannot fail to give increased usefulness and permanency to the primary schools, and insure that accountability which they consider vitally important to sustain and extend the munificent intentions of the Legisla

ture.

They recommend the adoption of the resolutions hereto annexed.

Resolved, That his Excellency the Governor, be, and he is hereby authorized to appoint three suitable persons to form a system of academic and poor [free] school instruction as nearly uniform as practicable throughout the State, & report to the next meeting of the Legislature, for their adoption or rejection, as to them may seem proper.

Resolved, That his Excellency the Governor, be, and he is hereby authorised to appoint a suitable person to complete [compile,] & have published in pamphlet form all the laws and resolutions now in force in this State, on the subject of public education & free schools, the number of pamphlets to be suffi [Laws of 1831.]

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cient to furnish each member of the present Legislature one, one for the Inferior Court, and, one for each Justice of the Peace in each county.

The reference from the Representative branch of the Legislature, requesting an enquiry into the expediency of establishing a State Library at the seat of Government, has been under the consideration of the Committee. The convenience, benefit and usefulness of an extensive and well selected library at the seat of Government, seem too obvious to admit of doubt. The want of one, is a reproach which should no longer exist. Profitable, useful and efficient legislation can only obtain where the law makers are intimately acquainted with the operation of the laws, and the objects to be attained by them. The first is the result of experience, the latter by a careful examination of the enactments of cotemporaries and predecessors, the last can be acquired alone by the legends of memory or the records of history. The morality of men changes as circumstances and occasions vary. Wise and successful legislation must not only be controlled by these circumstances, but also by an intimate acquaintance with all the principles involved in these [their] circumstances. In a government like ours, dependent for its permanency and freedom on the moral sentiment of the governed, it does seem to be a position self-evident, that the Legislators; and the Governors should always be in the possession of the means which can carry into operation most beneficially those principles of human action, which foster and protect the common weal. This object can be materially advanced by a well selected library; which would not [only] afford facility and fitness in legislation, and the Executive part of the Government, but likewise a beneficial amusement to the Legislators and other officers of the government. is believed that Georgia is the only one of the original confederacy, and the only one except three, of the twenty-four States, which does not profit by the benefits and facilities of a State Library, or an institution of equivalent advantages. The Committee report a bill to establish a State Library. Read and agreed to.

THOMAS STOCKS, President.

Attest, I. L. HARRIS, Secretary.

In the House of Representatives,
Concurred in, Dec. 24, 1831.
ASBURY HULL, Speaker.

Attest, W. C. DAWSON, Clerk..

Approved, Dec. 26, 1831.

WILSON LUMPKIN, Governor.

IN SENATE, Dec. 23, 1831.

Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives, That his Excellency the Governor be requested and authorised to send with the laws and journals of the present session, to send to the county of Rabun four copies each Prince's Digest, and Georgia Justice, for the use of the Justices of the Peace of said county.

Read and agreed to.

THOMAS STOCKS, President.

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The committee to whom was referred the Governor's communication, covering an act of the State of New-York, presenting to this State a map and Atlas of New-York, and also three sets of a compilation of her laws, have had the same under consideration, and with a view that Georgia may carefully [cheerfully] reciprocate the attention of a sister state, on an occasion like the present, they beg leave to offer the following:

Be it resolved, That his excellency the Governor be requested to have selected two of the best, largest and latest maps of the State, together with three sets each, of Prince's and Foster's Digest, and Dawson's Compilation of the laws of this State, of the best editions, and cause the same to be transmitted to the Executive of the state of New-York, at the expense of this State.

Resolved, That his Excellency the Governor be requested, to direct the Secretary of State, to accompany the same with a copy of these resolutions, expressing the gratification

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