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(54) For the plague, see Jornandes, c. 19, and Victor in Caesaribus.
(55) These improbable accusations are alleged by Zosimus, l. i. p. 23, 24.
(56) Jornandes, c. 19. The Gothic writer at least observed the peace which his victorious countrymes nad sworn to Gallus. (57) Zosimus, l. i. p. 25, 26.
(58) Victor in Caesaribus. (59) Zonaras, l. xii. p. 628. (60) Banduri Numismata, p. 94.
(61) Eutropius, I. ix. c. 6, says tertio mense. Eusebius omits this emperor
(62) Zosimus, i. i. p. 28 Eutropius and Victor station Valerian's army in Rhaetia.
(63) He was about seventy at the time of his accession, or, as it is more probable, of his death. Hist. August, p. 173. Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, tom, iii. p. 893, note 1. (64) Inimicus Tyrannorum. Hist. August. p. 173. In the glorious struggle of the senate against Maxi min, Valerian acted a very spirited part. Hist. August. p. 156. (65) According to the distinction of Victor, he seems to have received the title of Imperator from the army, and that of Augustus from the senate. (66) From Victor and from the medals, Tillemont (tom. iii. p. 710) very justly infers, that Gallienus was associated to the empire about the month of August of the year 253. (67) Various systems have been formed to explain a difficult passage in Gregory of Tours, l. ii. c. 9. (68) The Geographer of Ravenna, i. 11, by mentioning Mauring ania on the confines of Denmark, as the ancient seat of the Franks, gave birth to an ingenious system of Leibnitz. (69) See Cluver, Germania Antiqua, i, iii. c. 20. M. Freret, in the Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions, tom. xviii. (70) Most probably under the reign of Gordian, from an accidental circumstance fully canvassed by Tillemont, tom. iii. p. 710–1181.
as their name, manners, and complexion, were equally unknown on the coast of Africa.(80)
II. In that part of Upper Saxony beyond the Elbe, which is at present called the Marquisate of Lusace, there existed, in ancient times, a sacred wood, the awful seat of the superstition of the Suevi. None were permitted to enter the holy precincts, without confessing, by their servile bonds and suppliant posture, the immediate presence of the sovereign Deity.(81) Patriotism contributed as well as devotion to consecrate the Sonnenwald, or wood of the Semnones.(82) It was universally believed, that the nation had received its first existence on that sacred spot. At stated periods, the numerous tribes who gloried in the Suevic blood, resorted thither by their ambassadors; and the memory of their common extraction was perpetuated by barbaric rites and human sacrifices. The wide extended name of §. filled the interior countries of Germany, from the banks of the Oder to those of the Danube. They were distinguished from the other Germans by their peculiar mode of dressing their long hair, which they gathered into a rude knot on the crown of the head; and 'io delighted in an ornament that showed their ranks more lofty and terrible in the eyes of the enemy.(83) Jealous as the Germans were, of military renown, they all confessed the superior valour of the Suevi; and the tribes of the Usipetes and Tencteri, who, with a vast army encountered the dictator Cesar, declared that they esteemed it not a disgrace to have fled before a people, to whose arms the immortal gods themselves were "olo)
In the reign of the emperor Caracalla, an innumerable swarm of Suevo appeared on the banks of the Mein, and in the neighbourhood of the Roman provinces, in quest either of food, of plunder, or of glory.(85). The hasty army of volunteers gradually coalesced into a great and permanent nation, and as it was composed from so many different tribes, assumed the name of Alemanni, or ..All-men; to denote at once their various lineage, and their common bravery.(863 —The latter was soon felt by the Romans in many a hostile inroad. The Ale manni fought chiefly on horseback; but their cavalry was rendered still more formidable by a mixture of light infantry, selected from the bravest and most active of the youth, whom o exercise had inured to accompany the horseman in the longest march, the most rapid charge, or the most precipitate retreat.(87
This oil. people of Germans had been astonished by the immense preparations of Alexander Severus; they were dismayed by the arms of his successor, a barbarian equal in valour and fierceness to themselves. But still hovering on the frontiers of the empire, they increased the general disorder that ensued after the death of Decius. They inflicted severe wounds on the rich provinces of Gaul; they were the first who removed the veil that covered the feeble majesty of Italy. A numerous body of the Alemanni penetrated across the Danube, and through the Rhaetian Alps, into the plains of Lombardy, advanced as far as Ravenna, and displayed the victorious o of barbarians almost insight of Rome.(88) The insult and the danger rekindled in the senate some sparks of their ancient virtue. Both the emperors were engaged in far distant wars, Valerian in the East, and Gallienus on the Rhine. '. the hopes and resources of the Romans were in themselves. In this emergency, the senators resumed the defence of the republic, drew out the Praetorian guards, who had been left to garrison the capital, and filled up their numbers by enlisting into the public service the stoutest and most willing of the plebeians. The Alemanni, astonished with the sudden appearance of an army more numerous
(80) Aurel. Victor. Eutrop. ix. 6." (81) Tacit. Germania, 38. (82) Cluver. Germ. Antiq. iii. 25. (83) Sic Suevi a ceteris Germanis, sic Suevorum o n servis separantur. A proud separation. (84) Cesar in Bello Gallico, iv. 7. § ictor in Caracal. Dion Cassius, lxvii. p. 1350. (86) This etymology (far different from those which amuse the fancy of the learned) is preserved by Asinius Quadratus, an original historian, quoted by Agathias, i. c. 5. (87) The Suevi engaged Cesar in this manner, and the manoeuvre deserved the approbation of the conqueror (in Bello Gallico, i. 48). (88). Hist. August. p. 215, 216. Dexippus in the Excerpta Legationum, p. 8. Hieronym. Chron. Orosius, vii. 22.
than their own, retired into Germany, laden with spoil; and their retreat was esteemed as a victory by the unwarlike Romans.(89) When Gallienus received the intelligence that his capital was delivered from the barbarians, he was much less delighted, than alarmed, with the courage of the senate, since it might one day prompt them to rescue the public from domestic tyranny, as well as from foreign invasion. His timid ingratitude was published to his subjects, in an edict which prohibited the senators from exercising any military employment, and even from approaching the camps of the legions. But ... were groundless. The rich and luxurious nobles sinking into their natural character, accepted, as a favour, this disgraceful exemption from military service; and as long as they were indulged in the enjoyment of their baths, their theatres, and their villas, they cheerfully resigned the more dangerous cares of empire to the rough hands of peasants and soldiers.(90) Another invasion of the Alemanni, of a more formidable aspect, but more glorious event, is mentioned by a writer of the lower empire. Three hundred thousand of that warlike people are said to have been vanquished, in a battle near Milan, by Gallienus in person, at the head of . ten thousand Romans.(91) e may, however, with great probability, ascribe this incredible victory, either to the credulity of the historian, or to some exaggerated exploits of one of the emperor's lieutenants. It was by arms of a very different nature, that Gallienus endeavoured to protect Italy from the fury of the Germans. He espoused Pipa, the daughter of a king of the Marcomanni, a Suevic tribe, which was often confounded with the Alemanni in their wars and conquests.(92) To the father, as the price of his alliance, he granted an ample settlement in Pannonia. The native charms of unpolished beauty seem to have fixed the daughter in the affections of the inconstant emperor, and the bands of policy were more firmly connected by those of love. But the haughty prejudice of Rome still refused the name of marriage, to the profane mixture of a citizen and a barbarian; and has stigmatized the German princess with the opprobrious title of concubine of Gallienus.(93) III. We have already traced the emigration of the Goths from Scandinavia, or at least from Prussia, to the mouth of the Borysthenes, and have followed their victorious arms from the Borysthenes to the Danube. Under the reigns of Valerian and Gallienus, the frontier of the last mentioned river was perpetually infested by the inroads of Germans and Sarmatians; but it was defended by the Romans with more than usual firmness and success. The provinces that were the seat of war, recruited the armies of Rome with an inexhaustible supply of hardy soldiers; and more than one of these Illyrian peasants attained the station, and displayed the abilities, of a general. Though flying parties of the barbarians, who incessantly hovered on the banks of the Danube, penetrated sometimes to the confines of Italy and Macedonia; their progress was commonly checked, or their return intercepted, by the imperial lieutenants.(94) But the great stream of the Gothic hostilities was diverted into a very different channel. The Goths, in their new settlement of the Ukraine, soon became masters of the northern coast of the Euxine; to the south of that inland sea were situated the soft and wealthy provinces of Asia Minor, which possessed all that could attract, and nothing that could resist, a barbarian conqueror. The banks of the Borysthenes are only sixty miles distant from the narrow entrance(95) of the peninsula of Crim Tartary, known to the ancients under the name of Chersonesus Taurica.(96). On that inhospitable shore, Euripides, embellishing with exquisite art the tales of antiquity, has placed the scene of one of his most affecting tragedies.(97) The bloody sacrifices of Diana, the (89) Zosimus, l. i. p. 34. (90) Aurel. Victor, in Gallieno et Probo. His complaints breathe an uncommon spirit of freedom. (91) Zonaras, I. xii. p. 631. (92. One of the Victors calls him King of the Marcomanni; the other, of the Germans. (93) See Tillemont, Hist. des Empereurs, tom. iii. p. &c. 194) See the lives of Claudius, Aurelian, and Probus, in the Augustan History. (95) It is about half a league in breadth. Genealogical History of the Tartars, p. 598.
(90) M. de Peyssonel, who had been French consul at Caffa, in his observations sur les Peuples Bar. bares, qui ont habité les bords du Dauube. (97) Euripides in Iphigenia in Taurid