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power, he sunk under the fame and merit of his rival; and ordering his veins to be opened, prudently withdrew himself from the unequal contest.(16) The j. of this work will not permit us minutely to relate the actions of every emperor after he ascended the throne, much less to deduce the various fortunes of his private life. We shall only observe, that the father of Aurelian was a peasant of the territory of Sirmium, who occupied a small farm, the property of Aurelius, a rich senator. His warlike son enlisted in the troops as a common soldier, successively rose to the rank of a centurion, a tribune, the praefect of a o: the inspector of the camp, the general, or as it was then called, the duke of a frontier; and at length, during the Gothic war, exercised the important office of commander in chief of the cavalry. In every station he distinguished himself by matchless valour,(17) rigid discipline, and successful conduct. He was invested with the consulship by the emperor Valerian, who styles him, in the pompous language of that age, the deliverer of Illyricum, the restorer of Gaul, and the rival of the Scipios. At the recommendation of Valerian, a senator of the highest rank and merit, Ulpius Crinitus, whose blood was derived from the same source as that of Trajan, adopted the Pannonian peasant, gave him his daughter in marriage, and relieved with his ample fortune the honourable poverty which Aurelian ..". o The reign of Aurelian lasted only four years and about nine months; but every instant of that short period was ...? by some memorable achievement. He put an end to the Gothic war, chastised the Germans who invaded Italy, recovered Gaul, Spain, and Britain out of the hands of Tetricus, and destroyed the proud monarchy which Zenobia had erected in the East, on the ruins of the afflicted empire It was the rigid attention of Aurelian, even, to the minutest articles of discipline, which .. such uninterrupted success on his arms. His military ulations are contained in a very concise epistle to one of his inferior officers, who is commanded to enforce them, as he wishes to become a tribune, or as he is desirous to live. ... Gaming, drinking, and the arts of divination, were severely rohibited. Aurelian expected that his soldiers should be modest, frugal, and aborious; that their armour should be constantly kept bright, their weapons sharp, their clothing and horses ready for immediate service; that they should live in their quarters with chastity and sobriety, without damaging the cornfields, without stealing even a sheep, a fowl, or a bunch of grapes, without exacting from their landlords, either salt, or oil, or wood. “The public allowance,” continues the emperor, “is sufficient for their support; their wealth should be collected from the spoil of the enemy, not from the tears of the provincials.”(19) A single instance will serve to display, the rigour, and even cruelty of Aurelian. One of the soldiers had seduced the wife of his host. The guilty wretch was fastened to two trees, forcibly drawn toward each other, and his limbs were torn asunder by their sudden separation. A few such examples impressed a salutary consternation. The punishments of Aurelian were terrible; but he had seldom occasion to punish more than once the same offence. His own conduct gave a sanction to his laws, and the seditious legions dreaded a chief who had learned to obey, and who was worthy to command. The death of Claudius had revived the sainting spirit of the Goths. The troops which guarded the passes of Mount Haemus, and the banks of the Danube, had been drawn away by the apprehension of a civil war; and it seems probable that the remaining body of the Gothic and Vandalic tribes (16) Zosimus, l. i. p. 42. Pollio (Hist. August. p. 207) allows him virtues, and says, that like Pertinax he was killed by the licentious soldiers. According to Dexippus, he died of a disease. (17) Theoclius (as quoted in the Augustan History, p. 21i,jaffirms, that in one day he killed, with his own hand, forty-eight Sarinatians, and in several subsequent engagements nine hundred and fifty. This heroic valour was admired by the soldiers, and celebrated in their rude songs, the burden of which was miite mille, mille oceidit. (18) Acholius (ap. Hist. August. p. 213) describes the ceremony of the adoption, as it was performed at Byzantium, in the presenee of the emperor and his great officers. (15) hist. August. p. 211. This laconic epistle is truly the work of a soldier; it abounds with militar phrases and words, some of which cannot be understood without difficulty. Ferramenta samiata is embraced the favourable opportunity, abandoned their settlements of the Ukraine, traversed the rivers, and swelled with new multitudes the destroyi host of their countrymen. Their united numbers were at length encountere by Aurelian, and the bloody and doubtful conflict ended only with the approach § ...) Exhausted by so many calamities, which they had mutually endured and inflicted during a twenty years' war, the Goths and the Romans consented to a lasting and beneficial treaty. It was earnestly solicited by the barbarians, and cheerfully ratified by the legions, to whose suffrage the prodence of Aurelian referred the decision of that important question. The Gothic nation engaged to supply the armies of Rome with a body of two thousand auxiliaries, consistingentirely of cavalry, and stipulated in return an undisturbed retreat, with a regular market as far as the Danube, provided § the emperor's care, but at their own expense. The treaty was observed with such religious fidelity, that when a party of five hundred men, straggled from the camp in quest of plunder, the king or general of the barbarians commanded that the


well explained by Salmasius. The former of the words means all weapons of offence, and is contrasted with Arma, defensive armour The latter signifies keen and well sharpened.

uilty leader should be apprehended and shot to death with darts, as a victim #. to the sanctity of their engagements." It is, however, not unlikely that the precaution of Aurelian, who had exacted as hostages the sons and daughters of the Gothic chiefs, contributed something to this pacific temper. The youths he trained in the exercise of arms, and near his own person: to the damsels he gave a liberal and Roman education, and by bestowing them in marriage on some of his principal officers, gradually introduced between the two nations the closest and most endearing connexions.(21)

But the most important condition of peace was understood rather than expressed in the treaty. , Aurelian withdrew the Roman forces from Dacia, and tacitly relinquished that #. province to the Goths and Vandals.(22) His manly judgment convinced him of the solid advantages, and taught him to despise the seeming disgrace, of thus contracting the frontiers of the monarchy. The Dacian subjects, removed from those distant possessions which they were unable to cultivate or defend, added strength and populousness to the southern side of the Danube. A fertile territory, which the repetition of barbarous inroads had changed into a desert, was yielded to their industry, and a new province of Dacia still preserved the memory of Trajan's conquests. . The old country of that name detained, however, a considerable number of its inhabitants, who dreaded exile more than a Gothic master.(23) . These degenerate Romans continued to serve the empire, whose allegiance they had renounced by introducing among their conquerors the first notions of agriculture, the useful arts, and the conveniences of civilized life. An intercourse of commerce and language was gradually established between the opposite banks of the Danube; and after Dacia became an independent state, it often proved the firmest barrier of the empire against the invasions of the savages of the North. A sense of interest attached these more settled barbarians to the alliance of Rome, and a . interest very frequently ripens into sincere and useful ...; This various colony, which filled the ancient province, and was insensibly blended into one great people, still acknowledged the superior renown and authority of the Gothic tribe, and claimed the fancied honour of a Scandinavian origin. At the same time the lucky though accidental resemblance of the name of Gaeta, infused among the credulous Goths a vain persuasion, that, in a remote age, their own ancestors, already seated in the Dacian provinces, had received the instructions of Zamolxis, and checked the victorious arms of Sesostris and Darius.”(24)

(20) Zosimus, l. i. p. 45.

} Dexippus (ap. Excerpta Legat. p. 12) relates the whole transaction under the name of Vandals. Aurelian married one of the Gothic ladies to his general Bonosus, who was able to drink with the Goths and discover their secrets. Hist. August. p. 247. o: Ho: August. p. 222. Eutrop. ix. 15. Sextus Rufus, c. 9. Lactantius de mortibus Persecu

&oth. Walachians still preserve many traces of the Latin language, and have boasted, in every age, of their Roman descent. They are surrounded by, but not mixed with, the barbarians. See a Memoir of M. d'Anville on ancient Dacia, in the Academy of Inscriptions, tom. xxx.


(24) See the first chapter of Jornandes. The Vandals, however, (c. 22,) maintained a short independance between the rivers Marisia and Crissia (Maros and Keres) which fell into the Teiss,


(25) Dexip p. 7–12. Zosimus, i.i. p. 43. Vopiscus in Aurelian, in Hist. August. However these historians differ in names (Alemanni, Jathungi, and Marcomanni), it is evident that they mean the same people, and the same war; but it requires some care to conciliate and explain them.

t Cantoclarus, with his usual accuracy, chooses to translate three hundred thousand; his version is equally repugnant to sense and togrammar.

We may remark, as an instance of bad taste, that Dexippus applies to the light infantry of the

Alemanni the technical terms proper only to the Grecian phalanx. so In Dexippus, we at present read Rhodanus; M. de Valois very judiciously alters the word to


(29) The emperor Claudius was certainly of the number; but we are ignorant how far this mark of *espect was extended; if to Cesar and Augustus, it must have produced a very awful spectacle; a long line of the masters of the world. (30) Vopiscus in Hist. August, p.210

Ø1) Dexippus gives them a subtle and prolixoration worthw of a Grecian orphist.

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