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(1) Eutrop. ix. 19. Victor in Epitom. The town seems to have been properly called Declia, from a small tribe of Illyrians, (see Callarius, Geograph. Antiqua, tom. i. p. 393) and the original name of the fortunate slave was probably Docles; he first iengthened it to the Grecian harmony of Diocles, and at length to the Roman majesty of Dioclesianus. He likewise assumed the Patrician name of Valerius, and it is usually given him by Aurelius Victor.
(2) See Dacier on the sixth satire of the second book of Horace. Cornel. Nepos, in Wit. Eumen. c. 1.
(3) Lactantius (or whoever was the author of the little treatise De Mortibus Persecutorum) accuses Dioclesian of timidity in two places, c. 7, 8. In chap. 9, he says of him, “erat in omni tumultumeticulo' sus et animi disjectus.”
§ In this encomium, Aurelius Victor seems to convey a just, though indirect, censure of the cruelty of Constantius. It appears from the Fasti, that Aristobulus remained prefect of the city, and that he ended with Dioclesian, the consulship which he had commenced with Carinus
share of the sovereign authority.(10) Galerius, surnamed Armentarius, from his original profession of a herdsman, and Constantius, who from his pale comlexion had acquired the denomination of Chlorus,(11) were the two persons nvested with the second honours of the imperial purple. In describing the country, extraction, and manners of Herculius, we have already delineated those of Galerius, who was often, and not |...}; styled the younger Maximian, though, in many instances both of virtue and ability, he appears to have possessed a manifest su #. over the elder. The birth of Constantius was less obscure than that of his colleagues. Eutropius, his father, was one of the most considerable nobles of Dardania, and his mother was the niece of the emperor Claudius.(12) Although the youth of Constantius had been spent in arms, he was endowed with a mild and amiable disposition, and the popular voice had long since acknowledged him worthy of the rank which he at last attained. To strengthen the bonds of political, by those of domestic union, each of the emperors assumed the character of a father to one of the Cesars, Dioclesian to Galerius, and Maximian to Constantius; and each obliging them to repudiate their former wives, bestowed his daughter in marriage on his adopted son.(13) These four princes distributed among themselves the wide extent of the Roman empire. The defence of Gaul, Spain,(14) and Britain, was intrusted to Constantius: Galerius was stationed on the banks of the Danube, as the safeguard of the Illyrian provinces. Italy and Africa were considered as the department of Maximian ; and for his peculiar portion, Dioclesian reserved Thrace, Egypt, and the rich countries of Asia. Every one was sovereign within his own jurisdiction; but their united authority extended over the whole monarchy, and each of them was prepared to assist his colleagues with his counsels or presence. The Cesars, in their exalted rank, revered the majesty of the emperors, and the three younger princes invariably acknowledged, by their gratitude and obedience, the common parent of their fortunes. The suspicious jealousy of power found not any place among them; and the singular happiness of their union has been compared to a chorus of music, row was regulated and maintained by the skilful hand of the first artist.(15 This important measure was not carried into execution till about six years after the association of Maximian, and that interval of time had not been destitute of memorable incidents. But we have preferred, for the sake of perspicuity, first to describe the more perfect form of Dioclesian's government, and afterward to relate the actions of his reign, following rather the natural order of the events, and the dates of a very doubtful chronology. [A. D. 287.] The first exploit of Maximian, though it is mentioned in a few words by our imperfect writers, deserves, from its singularity, to be recorded in a history of human manners. He suppressed the peasants of Gaul, who, under the appellation of Bagaudae,(16) had risen in a general insurrection; ve similar to those, which in the fourteenth century successively afflicted bot France and England.(17) It should seem, that very many of those institutions, referred by an easy solution to the feudal system, are derived from the Celtic barbarians. When Cesar subdued the Gauls, that great nation was already divided
(10) Aurelius Victor. Victor in Epitome. Eutrop. ix.22. Lactantiusde M.P. c. 8. Hieronym. in Chron. (11). It is only among the modern Greeks that Tillemont can discover his appellation of Chlorus. Any remarkable degree of paleness seems inconsistent with the rubor mentioned in ... v. 19. (12) Julian, the grandson of Constantius, boasts that his family was derived from the warlike Maesians. Misopogon, p. 348. The Dardanians dwelt on the edge of Marsia. (13) Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Dioclesian; if we speak with strictness, Theodora, the wife of Constantius, was o only to the wife of Maximian. Spanheim Dissertat. xi.2. (14) This division agrees with that of the four prefectures; yet there is some reason to doubt whether Spain was not a province of Maximian. SeeTillemont, tom. iv. p. 517.” (15) Julian in Caesarib. p. 315. Spanheim's notes to the French translation, p. 122. (16) The general name of Bagauda (in the signification of Rebels) continued till the fifth century in Gaul. Some critics derive it from a Celtic word Bagad, a tumultuous assembly. Scaliger ad Euseb
Du o Glossar. #. hronique de Froissart, vol. 1. c. 182, ii. 73–79. The naiveté of his story is lost in our best modern writers.
into three orders of men; the o: the nobility, and the common people. The first governed by superstition, the second by arms, but the third * was not of any weight or account in their public councils. It was very natural for the plebeians, oppressed by debt, or apprehensive of injuries, to implore the protection of some powerful chief, who acquired over their persons and property the same absolute right as, among the Greeks and Romans, a master exercised over his slaves.(18). The greatest part of the nation was gradually reduced into a state of servitude; compelled to perpetual labour on the estates of the Gallic nobles, and confined to the soil, either by the real weight of fetters, or o the no less cruel and forcible restraints of the laws. During the long series of troubles which agitated Gaul, from the reign of Gallienus to that of Dioclesian, the condition of these servile peasants was peculiarly miserable; and they experienced at once the complicated tyranny of their masters, of the barbarians, of their soldiers, and of the officers of the i.” Their patience was at last provoked into despair. On every side they rose in multitudes, armed with rustic weapons, and with irresistible fury. The ploughman became a foot soldier, the shepherd mounted on horseback, the deserted villages and open towns were abandoned to the flames, and the ravages of the peasants equalled those of the fiercest barbarians.(20) They asserted the natural rights of men, but they asserted those rights with the most savage cruelty. The Gallic nobles, jo, dreading their revenge, either took refuge in the fortified cities, or fled from the wild scene of anarchy. The peasants reigned without control; and two of their most daring leaders had the folly and rashness to assume the imperial ornaments.(21) . Their power soon expired at the approach of the legions. The strength of union and discipline obtained an easy victory over a licentious and divided multitude.(22). A severe retaliation was inflicted on the peasants who were found in arms: the affrighted remnant returned to their respective habitations, and their unsuccessful effort for freedom served only to confirm their slavery. So strong and uniform is the current of popular passions, that we might almost venture, from very scanty materials, to relate the particulars of this war; but we are not disposed to believe that the principal leaders AElianus and Amandus were Christians,(23) or to insinuate, that the rebellion, as it happened in the time of Luther, was occasioned by the abuse of those benevolent principles of Christianity, which inculcate the natural freedom of mankind. Maximian had no sooner recovered Gaul from the hands of the peasants, than he lost Britain by the usurpation of Carausius. Ever since the rash but successful enterprise of the Franks under the reign of Probus, their daring countrymen had constructed squadrons of light brigantines, in which they incessantly ravaged the provinces adjacent to the ocean.(24). To repel these desultory incursions, it was found necessary to create a naval power; and the judicious measure was prosecuted with prudence and vigour. Gessoriacum, or Boulogne, in the straits of the British channel, was chosen by the emperor for the station of the Roman fleet; and the command of it was intrusted to Carausius, a Menapian of the meanest origin, (25) but who had long signalized his skill as a pilot, and his valour as a soldier. The integrity of the new admiral correso. not with his abilities. When the German pirates sailed from their own arbours, he connived at their passage, but he diligently intercepted their return,
(18) Cesar de Bell. Gallic. vi.13. Orgetorix, the Helvetian, could am for his defence a body of ten thousand slaves. (19). Their oppression and misery are acknowledged by Eumenius (Panegyr. vi. 8). Gallias afferatus injuriis. (20). Panegyr. Wet. ii. 4. Aurelius Victor. (21) Aelianus and Amandus. We have medals coined by them. Goltzius in Thes. R.A. p. 117.121. (23) Levibus proliis domuit. Eutrop. ix. 20. (23). The fact rests indeed on very slight authority, a life of St. Babolinus, which is probably of the seventh century. See Duchesne Scriptores Rer, Franciscar, tom. i. p. 662. (24) Aurelius Victor calls them Germans. Eutropius (ix. 21.) gives them the name of Saxons. But Eutropius lived in the ensuing century, and seems to use the language of his own times. The three expressions of Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, and Eumenius, “vilissime natus,” “Batavie alumnus,” and *Menapia civis,” give us avery doubtful account of the birth of Carausius. Dr. §tukely, however, (Hist, of Carausius, p. 62) chooses to make him anative of St. David's, and a prince of the blood royal of Britain. The former idea he had found in Richard of Cirencester, p. 44."
and appropriated to his own use an ample share of the spoil which they had acquired. The wealth of Carausius was, on this occasion, very justly considered as an evidence of his guilt; and Maximian had already given orders for his death. But the crafty Menapian foresaw and prevented the severity of the emperor. By his ..". he had attached to his fortunes the fleet which he commanded, and secured the barbarians in his interest. From the port of Boulogne, he sailed over to Britain, persuaded the legion, and the auxiliaries which guarded that island, to embrace his party, and boldly assuming, with the imperial purple, the title of Augustus, defied the justice and the arms of his injured too When Britain was thus dismembered from the empire, its importance was sensibly felt, and its loss sincerely lamented. . The Romans celebrated, and perhaps magnified, the extent of that noble island, provided on every side with convenient harbours; the temperature of the climate, and the fertility of the soil, alike adapted for the production of corn or of vines; the valuable minerals with which it abounded; its rich pastures, covered withinnumerable flocks, and its woods free from wild beasts or venomous serpents. Above all, the regretted the large amount of the revenue of Britain, while they confessed, that such a province well deserved to become the seat of an independent monarch § During the space of seven years, it was possessed by Carausius; and fortune continued propitious to a rebellion, supported with courage and ability. The British emperor defended the frontiers of his dominions against the Caledonians of the North, invited, from the continent, a great number of skilful artists, and displayed, on a variety of coins that are still extant, his state and opulence. Born on the confines of the Franks, he courted the friendship of that formidable Polo by the flattering imitation of their dress and manners. The bravest of their youth he enlisted among his land or sea forces; and in return for their useful alliance, he communicated to the barbarians the dangerous knowledge of military and naval arts. Carausius still preserved the possession of Boulogne and the adjacent country. His fleets rode triumphant in the channel, commanded the mouths of the Seine and of the Rhine, ravaged the coasts of the ocean, and diffused beyond the columns of Hercules the terror of his name. Under his command, Britain, destined in a future age to obtain the empire of the sea, already assumed its natural and respectable station of a maritime power.(28) y seizing the fleet of Boulogne, Carausius had deprived his master of the means of pursuit and revenge. And when, after a vast expense of time and labour, a new armament was launched into the o the imperial troops, unaccustomed to that element, were easily baffled and defeated by the veteran sailors of the *: This disappointed effort was soon productive of a treaty of peace. Dioclesian and his colleague, who justly dreaded the enterprising spirit of Carausius, resigned to him the sovereignty of Britain, and reluctantly admitted their perfidious servant to a participation of the imperial honours.(30) But the adoption of the two Cesars restored new vigour to the Roman arms; and while the Rhine was guarded by the presence of Maximian, his brave associate Constantius assumed the conduct of the British war. His
o Panegyr. v. 12. Britain at this time was secure, and slightly guarded. 27) Panegyr. Vet. v. 11. vii. 9. The orator Eumenius wished to exalt the glory of the hero (Constantius,) with the importance of the conquest. . Notwithstanding our laudable partiality for our native country, it is difficult to conceive, that, in the beginning of the fourth century, England deserved all ; commendations. A century and a half before, it hardly paid its own establishment. See Appian. roatin. (23) As a great number of medals of Carausius are still preserved, he is become a very favourite object of antiquarian curiosity, and every circumstance of his life and actions has been investigated with sagatious accuracy. Dr. Stukely in particular has devoted a large volume to the British emperor. I have used his materials, and rejected most of his fanciful conjectures. (29) When Mamertinus pronounced his first panegyric, the naval preparations of Maximian were com P. and the orator presaged an assured victory. His silence in the second Panegyric, might alone inrm us, that the .. had not succeeded. (30) Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, and the medals (Pax Augg.) inform us of this temporary reconciliation; though I will not presume (as Dr. Stukely has done, Medallic History of Carausius, p. 86, &c.) to insert the identical articles of the treaty.