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252 Retreat of the Goths...... --- ---.. ib.
Gallus purchases Peace by the Payment of
an annual Tribute..... ----------------

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Invade Gaul and Italy...... - ib.

Are repulsed from Rome by t

The Senators excluded by Gallienus from

the military Service.......... --

-------- 147

Gallienus contracts an Alliance with the

Alemanni.......

Inroads of the Goths.

Conquest of the Bosphorus by

The Goths acquire a naval Force......... 148

First naval Expedition of the Goths ...... ib.

The Goths besiege and take Trebizond.... 149

The second Expedition of the Goths...... ib.

They plunder the Cities of Bithynia...... ib.

Retreat of the Goths............... ... ... 150

Third naval Expedition of the Goths..... ib.

They pass the Bosphorus and the Hellespont ib.

Ravage Greece and threaten Italy ...... 5

Their Divisions and Retreat.......

Ruin of the Temple of Ephesus. ib.

Conduct of the Goths at Athens. . 152

Conquest of Armenia by the Persians ib.

Valerian marches into the East.......... ... ib.

260 Is defeated and taken prisoner by Sapor king

of Persia..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ---------- 153

SaporoverrunsSyria, Cilicia,and Cappadocia ib.

Boldness and Success of Odenathus against

Sapor---------------

Treatment of Valerian...... ------------- ib.

Character and Administration of Gallienus 155

The thirty Tyrants ---------------------- ib.

Thereal Number was nomore than nineteen 156

Character and Merit of the Tyrants...... ... ib.

Their obscure Birth. ...------------- ... ih

The Causes of their Rebollion. ... 157

Their violent Deaths. ----------- ib,

- P. ---

Fatal Consequences of these Usurpations. 157

Disorders of Sicily....................... 158

Tumults of Alexandria ... ... ib.

Rebellion of the Isaurians. . 159

Famine and Pestilence............ ... ib.

Diuinution of the Hunan Species........ ib.

CHAPTER xi.

Reign of Claudius—Defeat of the Goths—Victories

Triumph, and Death of Aurelian. r

A. D. PAGE

268 Aureolus invades Italy, is defeated, and be-

sieged at Milan -------------------..... 160

Death of Gallienus -----------........... 161

Character and Elevation of the Emperor

Claudius ------------....... --

268 Death of Aureolus................ -

Clemency and Justice of Claudius........

He undertakes the Reformation of the Army

Distress and Firmness of Claudius. ... ib.

270 The Alemannic War ...............
The Alemanni invade Italy ...........
They are at last vanquished by Aurelian..

271 Superstitious Ceremonies................
Fortifications of Rome.. --
Aurelian suppresses the two Usurpers
Succession of Usurpers in Gaul....

His Victory over the Goths............... ib.

270 Death of the Emperor, who recommuends

Aurelian for his Successor ............. 164

The Attempt and Fall of Quintilius. ... ib.

Origin and Services of Aurelian..... . 165

Aurelian's successful Reign ..... ... ib.

His severe Discipline..................... ib.

He concludes a Treaty with the Goths.... 166

He resigns to them the Province of Dacia. ib.

271 The Reign and Defeat of Tetricus. 170

272 Character of Zenobia........... ib.

Her Beauty and Learning , 171

Her Valour...................... - ib.
She revenges her Husband's Death. ib.
she reigns over the East and Egypt.. ib.

272 The Expedition of Aurelian......... 172

The Emperor defeats the Palmyrenians in

the Battles of Antioch and Em

The State of Palmyra.......... -
It is besieged by Aurelian...... -----

273 Aurelian becomes Master of Zenobia, and of

the City.----------..........

Behaviour of Zenobia.

Rebellion and Ruin of Palmy
Aurelian suppresses the Rebellion

His Treatment of Tetricus and Zenobia... 176

His Magnificence and Devotion...... -

He suppresses a Sedition at Rome.

Observations upon it..... - ---

Cruelty of Aurelian...................... 178

275 Hemarches into the East, and is assassinated ib

CHAPTER xII.

Conduct of the Army and Senate after the Death of

Aurelian-Reigns of Tacitus, Probus, Carus,

and his Sons.

A. D. race

Extraordinary Contest between the Army

and the Senate for the Choice of an Em-

275 A peaceful Interregnum of eight Months... ib.
The Consul assembles the Senate......... 180
Character of Tacitus .... ib.
He is elected Emperor... . 181
He accepts the Purple..... ib.
Authority of the Senate .. ... ib.
Their Joy and Confidence........... . 18%

: |276 Tacitus is acknowledged by the Army .... ib.

The Alani invade Asia, and are repulsed

by Taci

tus --- - - - - ----------...

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292 Association of two Cesars, Galerius and

Defence of the Frontiers........

Fortifications

Dissensions of the Barbarians.

Conduct of the Emperors.....
Valour of the Cesars.........

Troubles after the Abdication of Diocletian-Death

of Constantius-Elevation of Constantine and

JMazentius-Siz Emperors at the same Time—
Death of Jifaximian and Galerius–Pictories of
Constantine over Mazentius and Licinius—Re-
union of the Empire under the duthority of Con
stantine.

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D. Pago His Dominion shared between Maximin and Licinius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 300--312 Administration of Constantine in Gaul ib. Tyranny of Maxentius in Italy aud Africa 233 312 Civil War between Constantine and Maxentius. . . . . - - - Preparations ------Constantine passes the Alps. Battle of Turin Siege and Battle of Vero Indolence and Fears of Maxe 312 Victory of Constantine near Rome His Reception . . . . . . . . His Conduct at Rom 313 His Alliance with Licinius War between Maximin and Licinius . The Defeat of Maximin...... His Death......... Cruelty of Licinius... ---Unfortunate Fate of the Empress Valeria and her Mother----------------... . . . . . Quarrel between Constantine and Licinius First civil War between them.... 314 Battle of Cibalis..... Battle of Mardia Treaty of Peace...... 315–323 GeneralPeace,and LawsofConstantine ib. 322 The Gothic War................... . . . . . . 245 323 Second civil War between Constantine and Licinius ------------323 Battle of Hadrianople... 24 Siege of Byzantium, and naval Victory of Crispus . . . . . . . . ------ ib Battle of Chrysopolis ... Submission and Death of Licinius 324 Reunion of the Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.

CHAPTER XV.

The Progress of the Christian Religion, and the
Sentiments, Manners, JWumbers, and Condition of
the primitive Christians.

A. D*
Importance of the Inquiry ...
Its Difficulties .......... ------ --- - -ni-
Five Causes of the Growth of Christianity 250
I. The FIRST Cause. Zeal of the Jews. ib.

Its gradual Increase. ---------------------. 251

Their Religion better suited to Defence than
to Conquest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ib.

More liberal Zeal of Christianity. ... . .252

Obstimacy and Reasons of the believing Jews 253
The Nazarene Church of Jerusalem...... ib.
The Ebionites........ 254
The Gnostics ... . . . . . . . . . 255
Their Sects, Progress, and Influence....... 256
The Demons considered as the Gods of

Antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Abhorrence of the Christians for Idolatry. 258
Ceremonies .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ib.
Arts ....... ... ib.
Festivals........... ... 259
Zeal for Christianity........ ... . ib.
II. The SEcond Cause. The Doctrine of

the Immortality of the Soul among the
Philosophers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ib.
mong the Pagans of Greece and Rome . . 260
Among the Barbarians and the Jews . 26:
Among the Christians... ...
Approaching End of the W.
Doctrine of the Millennium ... --
Conflagration of Rome and of the World. 263
The P devoted to eternal Punishment 264
Were often converted by their Fears...... ib.
III. The Third CAUsr. Miraculous Powers
of the Primitive Church ......
Their Truth contested . . . . . . . . . . ----
Our Perplexity in defining the miraculous
Period ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ------------- ib.
Use of the primitive Miracles . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
IV. The FourTH CAUse. Virtues of the
first Chris

--- - - - - - - --- i

ib.
265

A. D. Paa-
Effects of their Repentance.............. ib.
Care of their Reputation .... ... ib.

Morality of the Fathers..... -
Principles of Human Nature.............
The primitive Christians condemn Pleasure
and Luxury . . . . ..................... ib
Their Sentiments concerning Marriage and
Chastity .......................... --
Their Aversion to the Business of War and
Government ------------------ - -
V. The Firth Cause. The Christians
active in the Government of the Church 271
Its primitive Freedom and Equality ...... ib.
Institution of Bishops as Presidents of the
College of Presbyters ..............
Provincial Councils......
Union of the Church ............
Progress of Episcopal Authority ... ib.
Pre-eminence of the Metropolitan Churches 274
Ambition of the Roman Pontiff........... -
Laity and Clergy ..................
Oblations *Hon. of the Church
Distribution of the Revenue
Excommunication.
Public Penance.............. -
The Dignity of Episcopal Government.
Recapitulation of the five Causes......... ib.
ness of Polytheism ---- --
The Skepticism of the Pagan World proved
favourable to the new Religion ......... i
And to the Peace and Union of the Roman
Empire -----------------.............. 28
Historical View of the Progress of Chris-
tianit ---- - i

Beyond the Limits of the Roman Empire. 285
General Proportion of Christians and Pagans 286
Whether the first Christians were mean and
so pions with Regard ----------- -
me. Exceptions with Regard to Learning ib.
With Regard to Rank and Fortune... 287
Christianity most favourably received by

the poor and simple.................... ib.
Rejected by some eminent Men of the first
and second Centuries....... ----------. ib.
Their Neglect of Prophecy. . .288
of Miracles .............. ib.

General Silence concerning the Darkness
of the Passion......................... ib

CHAPTER xVI.

The Conduct of the Roman Government towards
the Christians, from the Reign of Nero to that
of Constantine.
A. D. PAGE
Christianity persecuted by the Roman Em-

perors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 289
Inquiry into their Motives.. . 290
Rebellious Spirit of the Jews....... ... ib.
Toleration of the Jewish Religion ........ ib.
The Jews were a People who followed, the

Christians a Sect who deserted, the Reli

gion of their Fathers .................. 291

Christianity accused of Atheism, and mis-
taken by the People and Philosophers... 292
The Union and Assemblies of the Christians
considered as a dangerous Conspiracy .. 293
Their Manners calumniated.............. 294
Their imprudent Defence ........ ....... ib.
Idea of the Conduct of the Emperors
towards the Christians...........
They neglected the Christians as a Sect of
Jews.................................. ib.
The Fire of Rome under the Reign of Nero 296
Cruel Punishment of the Christians as the
Incendiaries of the City...... ------ ... . .297
Remarkson thepassage of Tacitus relative to
the Persecution of the Christians by Nero 298

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tians ------------------------- ------ ... 301 Trajan and his Successors establish a legal

ode of Proceeding against them...... . 302

Popular Clamours ... ib.

Trials of the Christians.. Humanity of the Roman Magistrates. Inconsiderable Number of Martyrs Example of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage. His Danger and Flight .. - --257 His Banishment .. His Condemnation.. His Martyrdom..... -- ---Various Incitements to Marty dom . Ardour of the first Christians .. Gradual Relaxation..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309 Three Methods of escaping Martyrdom ... ib. Alternatives of Severity and Toleration .. 310 The ten Persecutions ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ib. Supposed Edicts of Tiberius and Marcus Antoninus ---------------------------- 311 180 State of the Christians in the Reigns Commodus and Severus....... - - - - - 211—249. Of the Successors of Severus. 312 244 Of Maximin, Philip, and Decius.. ... • 313 253–260 Of Valerian Gallienus and his Successors ... • . . . . . . . . . . . .314 260 Paul of Samosata, his manners........ ... ib. 270. He is degraded from the See of Antioch... 315 274 The Sentence is executed by Aurelian .... ib. 284–303 Peace and Prosperity of the Church under shocletian... - - -Progress of Zeal and Superstition among . the Pagans ----------------- 316 Maximian and Galerius punish a few Christian Soldiers ------------- -------- ... . . .317 Galerius prevails on Diocletian to begin a general Persecution... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 318

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A. D.
Progress of the work.
Edifices . . . . . . . --------
Population
Privileges .........
330 or 334 Dedication................ ... ib.
300-500 Form of Government in the
Empire -----------------------. ... . . . . . .339
Hierarchy of the State... ib.
Three Ranks of Honour ... 340
Four Divisions of Orrick ib.
I. The Consuls........... . 341
The Patricians........ ---- 342
II. The Praetorian Praefects ... 343

The Praefects of Rome and Constan nople..... The Proconsuls, Vice-Praefects, &c. The Governors of the Provinces. The Profession of the Law .. III. The military Officers Distinction of the Troops.. Reduction of the Legions.. Difficulty of Levies......... Increase of Barbarian Auxiliaries IV. Seven Ministers of the Palace.

1. The Chamberlain........ 2. The Master of the Offices . 353 3. The Quaestor . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ib. 4. The Public Treasurer . 354 5. The Private Treasurer ..... . 355 6, 7. The Counts of the Domestics . ib. Agents, or Official Spies ................. ib. Use of Torture....... . 356 Finances...................... --- 357 The general Tribute, or Indiction .. ... ib. Assessed in the Form of a Capitation..... 359 Capitation on Trade and Industry........ 361 Free Gifts ............. -------- - . 362 Conclusion .......... . . . . . . . . . . --- ... ib.

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303 Demolition of the Church of Ni ib. The first Edict against the Christians. 319 Zeal and Punishment of a Christian.. ib.

Fire of the Palace of Nicomedia to the Christians......... Execution of the first Edict. Demolition of the Churches. Subsequent Edicts.............. ------3.03—311 General Idea of the Persecution ... In the Western Provinces, under Constantius and Constantine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In Italy and Africa, under Maximian and Severus, and under Maxentius ....... -In Illyricum and the East, under Galerius and Maximin..... 311 Galerius publishes Peace of the Church..................... Maximin prepares to renew the Persecution ----------. . . . . . . . 313 End of the Persecution Probable Account of the Sufferings of the Martyrs and Confessors....... Number of Martyrs..... Conclusion ...... ... --------------- ---

ChapTER xvii.

Foundation of Constantinople—Political System of Constantine, and his Successes—Military Discipline—The Palace—The Finances.

of Toleration. ii. - 3.25

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323 || 325 Edict of Constantine.......

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of the Empire among his three Sons—Persian War—Tragic Deaths of Constantine the Younger and Constans–Usurpation of .Magnentius–Civil War—Pictory of Constantius.

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326 Disgrace and Death of Crispu
The Empress Fausta
The Sons and Nephe
Their Education .
Manners of the Sarmatians
Their Settlement near the Danube..

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CHAPTER xix.

Constantius sole Emperor—Elevation and Death

3. Gallus—Danger and Elevation of Julian

arratian and Persian Wars-Victories of Julian in Gaul.

A. D. Page Power of the Punuchs......... - ... 387 Education of Gallus and Julian . ... 388 351 Gallus declared Cesar............. ... ib.

Cruelty and Imprudence of Gallus... 354 Massacre of the Imperial Ministers.. Dangerous Situation of Gallus His Disgrace and Death......... The Danger and Escape of Julian........ 355 He is sent to Athens..... Recalled to Milan ... Declared Cesar..... --Fatal End of Sylvanus 357 Constantius visits Rome. A new Obelisk......... --357,358,359 The Quadian an 358 The Persian Negotiation................. 359 Invasion of Mesopotamia by Sapor..... Siege of Annida 360 Siege of Singara ...... Conduct of the Romans. Invasion of Gaul by the Germans. Conduct of Julian 356 His first Campaign in Gaul 357. His second Campaign...... Battle of Strasburg...... 358 Julian subdues the Franks. 40 357, 358, 359 Makes three Expeditions beyond the Rhine . 408 Restores the Cities of Gaul Civil Administration of Julian. Description of Paris. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ChapTER xx.

The Motives, Progress, and Effects of the Conversion of Constantine-Legal Establishment of the Christian, or Catholic, Church.

... i. . . . . . . . 410

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324 Indifference of Constantine. 325 His Zeal -------------- ---328–337 He persecutes the Arian and the Or

thodox Parties.......... --

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