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Constantine, and the grandson of Constantius 9'.
The emperor himself had assumed the more dif-
ficult and important province of the Danube.
The Goths, who in the time of Claudius and
Aurelian had felt the weight 'of the Roman arms,

,respected the power of the empire, even in the

midst of its intestine divisions. But the strength of that warlike nation was now restored by a peace of near fifty years; a new generation had arisen, who'no longer remembered the misfortunes of ancient days : the Sarmatians of the lake Moeotis followed the Gothic standard either as subjects or as allies, and their united force was poured upon the countries of Illyricum. Campona, Margus, and Bononia, appear to have been the scenes of several memorable lieges and battles 99; and though Constantine encountered a very obstinate trefistance, he prevailed at length in the contest, and the Goths were compelled to purchase an ignominious retreat, by restoring the booty'and prisoners which they 'had taken. Nor was this advantage sufficient to satissy the indignation of the emperor. He resolved to chastise as well as to repulse the insolent barbarians who

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"9 In the Cesare of Julian (p. 329. Commentaire de Spanheim, p. 152.) Constantine boasts, that he had recovered the province (Dacia) which Trajan had subdued. But it is infinnated by Silenus, that the conquests of Constantine were like the gardens of' Adonis, which sade and wither almost the moment they appear.

'01 J'ornandes de Rebus Geticis, c. ar. I know not whether we may entirely depend on his authority. Such an alliance has a very recent air, and fcardely is suited to the 'maxims of the beginning o'f the fourth century. _

'07- Ensssebius in Wt. Constasintin. l.'i. c'. 8. This passage, how-_ ever, is taken from a generaldeclamation onthe greatness of Constantine, and not from any-pmicularaccount of the Gothic war.


C HAP- them for the destruction of Licinius, Whose adXIV. .

,-....,,...- vanced age and unpopular VlCCS seemed to offer 'a very. easy cosinquest'o'. But the old emperor, awakened by the approaching danger,. deceived the expectations of his friends as well as of his enemies. Calling forth that spirit and those abilities by which he had deserved the friendship of -Galerius and the Imperial purple, he prepared himself for the contest, collected the forces of the East, and soon filled the plains of Hadrianople with his troops, and the Streights of the Hellespont with his fleet. The army consisted of one hundred and fifty thousand foot, and fifteen thousand horse; and as the cavalry was drawn, for the most part, from Phrygia and Cappadocia, we may conceive a more favourable opinion of the beauty of thehorses, than of the courage and dexterity of their riders. The fleet was composed of three hundred and fifty gallies of three ranks of oars. An hundred and thirty of these were furnished by Egypt, and the adjacent coast of Africa. An hundred and ten sailed fromsithe ports of Phoenicia and the isle of Cyprus-7 and the maritime countries of Bithynia, Ionia, and Caria, were likewise obliged to provide an hundred and ten gallies. The troops of Constantine were ordered to rendezvous at Thessalonica; they amounted to above an hundred

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ance, and his army contained more soldiers, though fewer men, than that of his eastern c'ompetitor. The legions of Constantine Were'levied in the warlike provinces of Europe; action had confirmed their discipline, victory had velevated their hopes, and there were among them a great number of veterans, who, after seventeen glorious campaigns under the same leader, prepared themselves to deserve an honourable dismiffion by a last effort of their valour '05. But the naval pre'parations of Constantine were in every respect much inferior to those of Licinius. The maritime cities of Greece sent their respective quotas of men and ships to the celebrated harbour of Pirzeus, and their united forces confisted of no more than two hundred small vessels: a very feeble armament, if it is compared with those formidable fleets which were equipped and maintained by the republic of Athens during the Peloponneslan war'ofl. Since Italy was no 'longer

'04- Zofimus, I. ii. p. 94, 95.

'05 Constantine was very attentive to the privileges and comforts of his fellow-veterans (Conveterani), as he now began to style them. See the Theodofian Code, l. vii. tit. 20. tom. ii. p.4r9. 419.

- '05 Whilst the Athenians maintained the empire of the sea, their fleet consisted of three, and afterwards of four, hundred gallies of three ranks of oars, all completely equipped and ready for imme'diate service. The arsenal in the port of Piraans had cost the republic a thousand talents, about two hundred and sixteen thou

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VOL. II. S the

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of his rival's dominions.

Instead of embracing such an active- resolution, which might have changed the whole face of the war, the prudent Licinius expected the approach of his rival in a camp near Hadrianople, which he had fortified with an flux-tious care that betrayed his apprehenfion of the event. Constantinfldirected his march from Thessalonica towards that part of Thrace, till he found himself stopped by the broad and rapid stream of the Hebrus, and discovered the numerous army os Licinius, which filled the steep ascent of the hill, from the river to the city of Hadria-nopl'e. Man)r days were spent in doubtful: and distant skirmishes ; but at length the obstacles of the passage and of the attack were removed by the intrepid Conduct of Constantine. In this place' we ming relate a wonderful exploit of Constantine, which, though it can scarcely be paralleled either- in Po' etry or romance, is celebrated, not by a veng-l orator devoted to vhis fortune, but bfy an histo_rian, the partial enemy of his fame. We 37.'


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