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law, the riots had been entirely quel 'ror and apprehension, as in the present led, and, by the same means, order and instance, and all the powers of a despotranquillity might easily be restored tic government were demanded, it was in the other districts that the most impossible to say what consequences guilty had already expiated their of. might be produced. That there was fences on the scaffold, and that the no evidence to prove the rioters were combination being thus dissolved by in possession of any considerable funds the death of their leaders, no serious that, on the contrary, they seemed apprehension could be entertained to be absolutely destitute of money, That no attempt had been made to ex and felt the utmost difficulty in colecute the existing laws that evi- lecting the most trifling sums-that dence had been produced before the the revocation of the orders in councommittee, to shew that the watch cil alone would ensure the restoration and ward act had not been complied of tranquillity, and, added to the blesswith, and that there was no proof of ings of a good harvest, would speedithat accumulation of arms, which the ly relieve the distresses of the counrioters were supposed to have accom try. plished by violence and robbery_That Mr Whitbread made an elaborate ha. a great deal had been said of a meet- rangue on this occasion, and concluing on Dane-moor on the night of the ded by proposing his usual remedy. 19th of April, immediately before the “ There is but one remedy,” said he, burning of the mills ; but of the forty“ for all these evils, which must unapersons

who were present on the moor, voidably be borne so long as peace it appeared that ten were local militia- shall not be obtained. But peace men disguised, who had thus been em. ought by all means to be obtained if ployed by goverument in a most de possible, for the country is going protestable system of espionage-That gressively into a state of things from the misguided insurgents had been fre- which much is to be feared. The quently induced to go greater lengths ministers must be aware of the truth than they would otherwise have gone, of what he was stating, as he had by men who were employed as spies, predicted, that if peace was not made to incite the multitude to daring in time, we should be compelled to and desperate acts of violence-That make it whether we would or not. the measures' now proposed to par. Peace is the only remedy,” said he, liament resembled very much those “ for our internal grievances, and the which had been some years ago adopt. only remedy for our external grieed in Ireland ; in that country, in

vances also ; and, in his opinion, a which such dreadful scenes had been more favourable occasion for a geneexhibited, that the recollection of them ral peace never existed than at this agonized the minds of Englishmen- time.”

Mr Whitbread was unconThat under pretence of searching for sciously palliating, in some measure, arms, government wished to disarm atrocitics

which filled the country with the country that the

persons

whose horror-he was helping to turn the arms were demanded might very well indignation of the people, which was say, “ We will not give up our arms, naturally directed against the enemies for if we do the rioters will mark us of their country, towards that govern. out, and we shall be unable to defend ment which protected them while it ourselves”-that when the minds of upheld the honour of the English men were so much distracted with ter name ; and indirectly encouraging in

their nefarious proceedings the delu- England, his advice was rejected; the ded men who were endeavouring to measures proposed by government for reduce the country to an extremity, restoring the tranquillity of the coun. which might have compelled it to ac- try were sanctioned by the legislature, cept the ungenerous advice which he and were instantly attended with the was always ready to offer. But, hap: most beneficial consequences. pily for the honour and prosperity of

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State of Parties at the Beginning of the Year. The Prince Regent's Letter to

the Duke of York. Lord Borringdon's Motion for an Address to the Prince to form a more extended Administration. The Ministers retain their Places. Assassination of Mr Perceval ; his Character.

The character and views of the dif- intricate, is not embarrassed by unne. ferent parties who possess or aspire to cessary complications ; it is composed the direction of public affairs, acquire of many powers, each acting as a check an importance in a free country, which on the other ; and, above all, the peoexcites the astonishment and ridicule of ple are accustomed to exercise a great those who live under a different form controul over the proceedings of goof government. It is not difficult to

vernment. Nothing, therefore,' of any assign the cause of this marked distinc- consequence is done here, no importion. The proceedings of an arbitrary tant step, either in foreign or domestic government have but little interest to policy, is resolved on, without ample an enlightened mind-for as the will and eager discussion, and no real of the sovereign, which forms the only change can be accomplished for which law, is seldom guided by principles some plausible reason is not offered. It which can become the ground work of is true, indeed, that such a govern. reasoning, the domestic revolutions to ment, although liable to continual which such governments are exposed, fluctuations, changes its principles but constitute a barren and uninteresting little in the course of time ; and that, subject of history. Extreme simpli- although minor alterations are of, frecity and endless variety alike exclude quent occurrence, and the public mind conjecture and speculation; the pow is continually agitated with political ers of the understanding find their pro- discussion, yet all the changes which per employment in the extensive re can be ultimately effected by any par; gions which lie between, in which the ty, how powerful soever, are confined mind is neither stupified by a tedious within narrow limits. Yet the characuniformity, nor bewildered by a suc ter and views of public men rise in imcession of changes which defy all the portance in exact proportion to the laws of arrangement and combination. real security of the constitution against All free governments, and, in a peculiar their influence and designs : the poand eminent degree, the government pular interest in their proceedings is of this country, exhibit this happy mo commensurate to the stability of the deration so propitious to study and re institutions of which it is the surest. flection. The constitution, although guarantee; so that there is no branch

of the history of a free country which century. The pride and arrogance of so naturally and universally engages some, the weakness and obstinacy of attention as those great contests for others, may have deserved censure ; power and pre-eminence, which igno. but there is not the slightest reason to rance and malice alone are wont to believe that any considerable man bebrand as the mere struggles of faction. longing to either of the great leading

It has been supposed by some per- parties, has, for many years past, been sons, that the leading public men in a tempted by the pitiful emoluments of free state are necessarily and inevita office, or by any consideration merely bly guided by selfish considerations selfish, to sacrifice his integrity or inthat they are disposed to view the po. dependence. Men who, as individulitics, whether domestic or foreign, of als, would be wicked enough to make their country, chiefly as they may af- such a sacrifice, could never in a pubfect the interest of the factions which lic capacity be expected to sustain the are struggling for power, and that the honour of the nation : yet it is a fact, semblance, rather than the reality, of which few will venture to dispute, that patriotism is all that can be expected how great soever the errors in policy from them. Were their power greater, which may have been imputable to or their independence of public opi- ministers, the national honour and nion more complete, it has been ima. good-faith have hitherto been presergined that they would more easily disa ved without tarnish or reproach. This encumber themselves of the selfish is a proof, at least, of honourable maxims by which their conduct is en views in those who have been entrustslaved, and that, although with occa. ed with the conduct of affairs of sional frowardness and tyranny, yet principles which would in vain be with greater boldness and vigour, they sought for among the degraded vice would seek the real interest of the tims of a base and sordid ambition. country. This, however, seems to be a A great change is supposed to have mistake ; for, besides that the blessings taken place in the state of parties since of freedom have a tendency to inspire the death of Pitt and Fox, who had public men with greater nobleness and so far elevated themselves by their tagenerosity of mind, the check which, lents above their contemporaries. No in a free country, is exercised through person, it is said, now follows either the medium of the press, and by the party with that implicit submission vigilance of the people, on the conduct which he was wont to pay to the te. of their leaders, must be infinitely more nets of the one or other of these great powerful in insuring the high and ho. leaders; but this opinion also seems nourable fulfilment of duty, than the to be founded on a very obvious mispossession of the most absolute power take. The mere admiration of talents of which history has left any record. is not sufficient to insure political atNotwithstanding the calumnies which tachment; it goes a great way indeed have been so industriously circulated towards preserving personal regard and by persons who wish to bring not only veneration for the possessor, but in a the government, but all public men matter so serious as the choice of a into contempt, it may be affirmed, system of political opinions, it will not that in no age or country has there maintain that united and vigorous coever been a race of statesmen of more operation which is necessary to the eminent qualifications, and more un

No impeachable integrity, than has Alou man ever stood higher in the public Fished in Great Britain for the last

estimation for talents and virtue thar

power and influence of a

party:

the late Mr Burke ; yet he could orders. It has thus happened, that, hardly be said at any period of his life besides the ministerial and opposition to have commanded a party, or to have parties, another tribe of politicians, of insured for his opinions implicit respect a singular and anomalous character, or active co-operation. Political at. has made its appearance; and as the tachments in honourable minds arise two great parties in all their struggles out of a candid and rational preference sought the approbation of the higher for a system of opinions, by which it and more intelligent orders, this new is supposed that the public safety and faction seized on the mob as the prohonour can be best maintained ; unin- per objects of its influence and authofluenced by personal regard or affec. rity. At the beginning of the present tion, they are founded on views far year, there were in this way three

parmore generous and elevated. As a ties contending for influence, of which proof of this, we may refer to the ca- it may be proper in this place to give reer of those eminent men who have

some account, lately brought the public affairs to so The ministerial party, of which glorious an issue. They became the the late Mr Perceval was at this time leaders of that party of which Mr Pitt the leader, numbered among its supwas at one time the head ; and they porters many very able men. Its chiefs have been uniformly supported with unanimously concurred in a profound no less zeal and union both in and out reverence for the principles and opie of parliament, than that illustrious nions of Mr Pitt, in whose school statesman himself. There have been they were bred, and to whose memomore numerous defections indeed from ry they looked with feelings of venethe whig, or opposition party; and it ration. It can scarcely be necessary is not difficult to give a satisfactory to give any account of the political explanation of this circumstance, with principles of this great man ; they are out supposing that the genuine. fol. known to all Europe, and exercised lowers of that party are defective in a on its destinies for the last thirty years sincere and steady attachment to its a greater influence than those of any principles. It is natural for political other statesman. The leading maxims adventurers, in the first instance, to of his followers were persevering reengage on the side of opposition ; sistance to the dangerous ambition of they have there a better field for the France-a wise jealousy of the princidisplay of those qualities on which ples which have been drawn forth in they value themselves,—a zealous, the course of her revolution, and a though narrow, hostility to existing firm determination in all circumstances institutions, and a clamorous impa- to sustain the high rank of Great Britience of all control. But, as such tain in the scale of European powers. persons are not in general very steady The principles of their foreign policy, to their principles, and as they are therefore, were vigorous as they were easily seduced by the popular applause, simple ; and with regard to domestic which their arts seldom fail to obtain, affairs, the constant tenor of their eonthey quickly separate themselves from duct proved that although they were those with whom they were at first favourable to moderate and practical accustomed to act, and by an affecta. improvement, they entertained a salution of greater purity and warmer zeal tary dread of intemperate innovation. for the public service than either of They considered the mechanism of the great parties possess, they strive such a government as that of England to acquire the confidence of the lower to be a great deal too fine to ba

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