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orders in council had been first enfor- and proper, in the present circumced, the value of the exports amounted stances of Europe, to import into to about thirty-four millions and a half; Great Britain.-That a most exaggein 1808 it amounted to about the same rated account had been given of the sum ; in 1809 it increased to upwards injury done to the British shipping by of fifty millions; and in 1310 sunk to the orders in council, which could about forty-six millions, which still left easily be disproved by a reference to a great increase since 1807, when the facts. In 1807 the British shipping orders were first issued. The reports actually employed was 1,436,000 which had been circulated by the sup- tons; in 180, 1,311,000 ; in 1809, porters of the motion as to the millions 1,539,008 ; and in 1810, 1,609,000 of British property confiscated by tons ; so that an increase in British Buonaparte, were quite absurd and shipping had taken place, since the groundless; and even if they were true, operation of the orders in council, to had not the least connection with the a very great extent. The number of subject of the orders in council. That seamen had also increased from 88,000 the non-intercourse law, and the other to 102,000; and although it was true measures adopted by America, had that foreign shipping had also in. opened to this country a direct trade creased, yet it must be recollected that with the Spanish and Portuguese co. this foreign shipping, in the circumlonies, and had thus been of essential stances of the world, had contributed service to the commerce of Great Bri. to the prosperity of British commerce. tain. That a fair account of the ex To those who complained, that a ports to America and the West Indies partiality had been indicated to the foin different years, from 1807 down. reign shipping of the continent, over wards, would dissipate the delusion that of America, it was answered, that which some persons had attempted to no distinction had been made by Great impose on the country; that in 1807 Britain ; and it had been the fault of these exports amounted to nearly fif. the Americans themselves if they had teen millions ; in 1808, notwithstand. not participated in the trade lately ing the partial prohibition of importa- carried on. That a great advantage tion into the United States, to nearly accrued to England from an immediate sixteen millions ; in 1809, when the intercourse with the Spanish and PorAmerican non-intercourse act was car- tuguese colonies in South America ; ried into effect, to upwards of nineteen that the advantages of commerce, and millions; and in 1810, while the same the objects of the navigation act, were act was still in operation, the exports thus equally promoted. Had the orders to America and the West Indies rose in council never been issued, France to about twenty millions and a half in would have enjoyed the full benefit of value. It thus appeared, that in the a trade with the whole world ; she intervening years betwixt 1807 and would have been enabled to supply 1810, an increase, to the extent of six herself with the raw materials of her millions sterling had taken place in the manufactures, an object to which she export trade of this country to the evidently directed her most anxious whole of America. That a foolish efforts. What was the real origin of attempt had been made to misrepre. the orders in council ? France declared sent the objects which engaged the that there should be no trade to Eng; attention of the Board of Trade, since it land; the answer of England was, and was recently entrusted with the power she had the power of enforcing her of determining what articles it was safe mandate, that nothing should be ex.

ported from France but by her per. French decrees, since it had been demission. She had a right to announce clared by the French government,

that to neutral powers, that if they tole. no repeal could take place until Engrated the regulations of one belligerent, land should abandon her right of blockinimical to all commercial interests, ade,-a requisition in which Amerithey must submit to regulations on ca concurred, as she required of Great her part, in defence of these interests. Britain to repeal so much of the regu. That the cabinet of England had been lations of 1807 as might leave the friendly towards America, while that trade of America perfectly unimpeded. of France had been hostile in the ex What would be the consequence of treme. France had on all occasions repealing the orders in council, and seized and destroyed the property of giving up the licence trade ?-to open American citizens.-- That many proofs to France and America the trade of of the insincerity of the French go- the whole world. America would then vernment in the revocation of its de- carry the manufactures and colonial crees had lately appeared, even in the produce of France to the different proceedings of the Admiralty courts ports of Europe ; while England would of England. - That in France, the dis- be excluded from a participation in a tinction between sequestration and con commerce which she would thus perdemnation, which had been ignorant- mit to her enemies.-- That the mea. ly taken by some speakers, was mere. sures of Buonaparte, although they had ly nominal; and the existence of se. in some degree affected this country, questrations, to a large amount, could had also inflicted a severe blow on his not be denied. That the perjury and , own commerce and resources ; that the immorality which had been so learn revenue of France had suffered greatly edly descanted on, had existed long since the issuing of the orders in counbefore the orders in council and licence cil; and that her trade had experientrade were known. That a house had ced a very serious diminution appearbeen established at Embden, which, ed from her money transactions, and for frauds of that kind, had received the state of the affairs of her national a regular commission of 2 per cent. ; bank. With reference to the measure and were the orders in council and the immediately before the house, it was licence system abolished, the country said that the appointment of a commust return to the old practices of neu. mittee could serve no good purpose, tralization, which could not exist but unless it were intended that the comby perjury. Many arts had been used mittee, by interfering with the affairs to make the people believe that their of America, should controul the deli. distresses proceeded from the orders in berations of the cabinet ; a proposal council; yet the gloomy pictures which which was not likely to find support had been drawn of the state of the in the House of Commons. If such a country were either very extravagant committee were appointed, gentlemen or entirely fanciful. The arguments of different interests must be examiwhich had been built on the assump- ned; some deeply connected with the tion, that the goods exported in 1809 American trade, and naturally enterhad not found a market, ressed on a taining certain prejudices in its favour ; gross mistake in point of fact : these others connected with the trade to the goods had, in the first instance, found continent of Europe, and full of preju. a ready market, which continued open dices of an opposite nature ; and how, until the month of March, 1810.-It in such circumstances, could the comwas idle to talk of the repeal of the mittee extract the truth from thend ?

It was a mean and despicable thing, French decrees, there would still have at all events, to proclaim to the world, been (as was said with regard to the that a question of such great national existing system) “ forgery in the oriimportance was to be decided on the gin, and perjury and fraud in the narrow and sordid principle of profit conclusion of the transactions.”-It and loss.—That the great prosperity was absurd to suppose that Buonaof British trade in 1809 and 1810 had,, parte was an enemy to all commerce ; by encouraging a spirit of wild spe.' he was a decided enemy, indeed, to culation, occasioned much of the late British commerce, but as to his own distress ; but was the House, by ap- trade he appeared to have its interests pointing a committee, to confirm a very much at heart. That America prejudice of the manufacturers, art. had joined with him in requiring fully raised from bad motives, that all not only the repeal of the orders in their distresses were imputable to the council, but the abandonment of the impolicy of their own government, not British system of blockade ; and it to the barbarous system of the enemy, was childish therefore to imagine that who had violated all the laws of civi- the repeal of the orders in council lized nations ?—That the question as to would be sufficient to conciliate her. the licence trade was totally uncon. The principle of these orders was de. nected with the orders in council ; that scribed by Mr Canning, as being strict. British property could find admission ly retaliatory. It had been thought into the continent only under the cover expedient indeed to qualify the prinof neutrality; and there is no maxim ciple by a restriction, which amountmore obvious, than that trade cannot ed only to a mitigation in favour of be carried on betwixt enemies except neutrals ; a mitigation that shewed the by licence; a rule which is intend- desire of the British government to ed to prevent unlawful and treasonable confine the evil to the enemy. Where intercourse. That no plan could, in the principle of retaliation was strictly the circumstances of Europe, have been adhered to, the injury to the neutral devised for carrying on the trade of was merely incidental, and wholly un England with the continent in a man. avoidable; the injury was matter of neraltogether pure and irreproachable; regret, but the measures from which it but it betrayed a vile hypocrisy to as- resulted had been forced on the Brisert, that trade ought to be wholly tish government.--Those who objectabandoned on account of the excusable ed to the principle of retaliation in frauds necessarily practised in conduct. warlike measures, forgot that there is ing it.—That the object of the licence in fact no other method of enforcing system was merely to protect vessels obedience to the law of nations, but from British seizures and condemna. by the operation of this principle. tions ; for it was by other means that If a considerable state presume to they calculated on evading the provi- set all laws at defiance,—to contemn sions of the continental system, and every principle hitherto regarded as introducing their produce into the sacred, and to carry on war in violaFrench territories. Even if the or tion of every maxim of the law of naders in council had been repealed, and tions, how can its mad career be ar. the Americans allowed, without mo rested' but by recurrence to measures lestation, to carry the sugars of Cuba of retaliation? It had been said, that into France, and the manufactures of if England did retaliate, she ought to Germany into South America, while have done so in the mode and form in the British trade was controuled by the which the enemy had injured her; yet

nothing could be more extravagant. ried on with certain countries except If the enemy chose to violate the law by means of licences, are the objeca of nations, in a case in which he had tions to that system so formidable that nothing to lose, while we had every the trade must be abandoned rather thing at stake, could it be seriously than have recourse to it ?-It was pretended that we were bound to re a foolish notion to suppose that the taliate, not where we could make him orders in council had no effect on the feel the consequences of his folly, but trade of France ; the diminished prowhere we could do him no possible in- duce of the French customs contrajury ?-The object of the orders in dicted such an opinion ; and in an council was not to destroy the trade address of the senate to Buonaparte, it of the continent, but to compel the was acknowledged that the French no continent to trade with England, and longer had any trade, except what was with England alone. That must have carried on by means of canals; while been an absurd species of reasoning it was admitted, without hesitation, which attributed the recent difficulties that they laboured in all respects unof trade to these orders, when it was der the most unexampled difficulties. incontestably proved, that for two on —That on no principle was Great Brithree

years after they were issued, an tain bound to suffer France to give effect directly opposite had resulted, laws to neutral powers, without maand when the embarrassments of com king an effort to induce them to assert merce had been so clearly traced to their rights. The grand object of the other causes.

In answer to those who orders in council had been not only to complained of the immorality of the inflict retaliation on France, but to inlicence system, as displayed in the form duce America to disengage herself of the licences themselves, it was re from a connection in which she had marked, that the very clause which had unhappily been involved, and to rebeen censured with so much severity, sume her consequence and independhad been drawn up by former ad. ence among the nations of the world. ministration, and found by the pre. Such is the substance of these fa. sent ministers in their offices, prepared mous discussions in both houses of and digested by the very persons who parliament; and the result was, that now affected to be so much scan- the motions of the Marquis of Lansdalised by the discovery.—That the downe and Mr Brougham were negareal question upon this branch of the tived by a very great majority. subject was, if trade cannot be car

CHAP. X.

American Affairs continued. Declaration of the British Government relating

to the disputed Poins of Maritime Law. Secret Mission of Captain Henry to the United States. Renewed Discussion on the Orders in Council. The British Government rescind them with respect to America. ¿merica still dissatisfied. Decla es War against England. Capture of the Guerriere and Macedonian Frigates. Destruction of the Armies of Generals Hull and Wadsworth.

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The frequent acts of plunder and crease of the duties on importation

. confiscation committed by the French, The loans for 1813 and 1814 were at seemed for a time to have some effect the same time estimated at eighteen on the councils of the United States, millions each year; and although a and to have encouraged a pacific dis- vigorous opposition was made to a position towards Great Britain, which measure which threatened to subject was, perhaps, not a little strengthen the citizens of the United States to ed by the disclosures so recently a severe system of taxation which made as to the state of the American they were unable to bear, the bill at finances. Yet the proposals submit- last received the sanction of the legisted to the British government were

lature. perhaps not very sincere, but intend. A bill of a most extraordinary na. ed merely for the purpose of gaining ture was about the same time introtime. An offer was made by Ame- duced, which provided that rica to establish, under some import- reigner guilty of impressing American ant modifications, the treaty which citizens on board a foreign ship, should, was signed by the plenipotentiaries of when arrested, be tried, and, if convictthe two governments in the year 1806, ed, suffer death as a pirate. The obbut which Mr Jefferson refused at that ject of this

, as well as of the other time to ratify. The American go measures adopted at this period, could vernment must have known, however, not be mistaken ; and the general hosthat England could not, without sur. tility towards England seemed to inrendering all her pretensions, accede crease in spite of the vain attempts at to such a proposition. In the mean negociation, which the American gotime the Americans were making pre vernment still continued to pursue. parations for war ; a loan of eleven An event occurred about this time millions of dollars was proposed for which imperiously demanded of the the service of the year; the interest British government, a distinct arowal upon which was to be paid by an in- of its principles in the new state of

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