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greater ; the condition of his empire a formidable army, which, had she been
more imperiously demanded the sacri- hurried into the contest, might have ena-
fice of his strange policy; and on no bled her to meet it without very great
principle could he be called upon to apprehension. Her whole force in in.
take the lead in the execution of the fantry consisted of more than 300,000
frantic project which the French ruler men; her cavalry amounted to 40,000,
had conceived, or submit to greater in addition to which there were 50,000
hardships than the author of this novel cossacks, and a numerous militia rapid-
scheme of warfare. When the Rus- ly organising. But one hundred thou.
sian government, therefore, prohibited sand of her best soldiers would at
the importation of British goods, ex- this period have been unavailing in any
cept under special licences, and in neu. contest with France ; they were em-
tral ships, it did all that it was bound ployed against the Turks and Persians,
to do towards executing the treaty of and in watching the movements of
Tilsit ; for this very obvious reason, Sweden. Delay was, therefore, of
that it did all which the author of this great importance to Russia ; and it
very compact had been able to per- was, perhaps, of no less importance to
form even within the confines of his her enemies.
own dominions.

Buonaparte had been more urgent This imperfect obedience, however, and imperious in his demands than acdid not satisfy the French ruler ; and tive in his preparations. In 1811, he the Russian government must have had about 60,000 men in Germany, known from the beginning that it including the garrisons of Stettin, would not.- Preparations had accord- Custrin,

and Glogau ; from the duchy ingly been made so early as the spring of Warsaw he might have drawn about of 1811, to meet the crisis which was the same number ; while the confede. fast approaching. Two hundred thou- ration of the Rhine, whose contingent sand troops were concentrated in the was 100,000 men, could not at this western provinces of the Russian em- time have supplied more than the half pire; 500,000 muskets and 2000 pieces of that number. By the spring of the of ordnance were manufactured with following year, however, the French unexampled rapidity ; the cannon from armies had been greatly augmented ; the arsenals in the interior were se. the troops of the confederation had cretly dispatched towards the frontier, been raised to the stipulated quota, and the fortifications on the Dwina and the kings of Saxony and Naples were strengthened and improved. had been compelled to prepare for

The open violation of the treaty of embarking in the great enterprise aTilsit by the seizure of the duchy of gainst Russia. The armies which Oldenburgh, might have been follow. Buonaparte had thus assembled on ed by an immediate declaration of war the frontiers of Russian Poland, afrom Russia ; but her preparations mounted, by the most moderate comwere yet far from being completed, putation, to upwards of 400,000 men, and she was still engaged in hostilities and by other accounts to upwards of with Turkey. Even at this period, 600,000,* in a state of the highest however, it thus appears that she had discipline and equipment, accustomed

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*“ The following statement is presumed to be the most accurate, as it is taken from the French official documents of last year. The French official details have again and again informed us, that the 9th and i1th corps, acting as reserves under Belluno (Victor) and Castiglione (Augereau), were 30,000 strong cach at the beginning of the cain

VOL. V. PART I.

to victory, and commanded by the first all were animated by the lively enthu. military talents of the

age.

siasm so characteristic of that people, Such were the mighty preparations and so natural to the circumstances in made on each side. They correspond. which the army was now placed, ed to the greatness of the interests Their courage, the result of this enwhich were at issue; the Russians thusiasm, prompted by vague aspiringe were about to contend for their very after military glory, and sustained by existence as an independent nation ; feelings of devotion to their country, the French, on the other hand, were promised great enterprise and temerity now to aim a blow which should bring in the outset of the campaign ; an en. the whole continent of Europe under terprise which had often triumphed their dominion. In numbers the com over the supineness of their enemies, batants were not at first on a footing and a temerity which had more than of equality; and in discipline, in science, once given the imposing aspect of su. in the organisation of the army, the perior genius and power to frantic da. French bad a marked superiority. The ring and extravagance. The fatal in. whole resources of a mighty empire, Auence of that intrigue which had pur. pre-eminent in civilization, yet deyoted chased so many conquests to France, to war, had been exhausted ; every formed an important item in the cal, aid which experience and skill could culation of her present fortunes; and give in the application of these re. all these circumstances, thus combined, sources had been contributed ; the seemed to bestow upon her councils accumulated means and varied talents and armies many important advanta. wl.ich twenty years of successful war ges over those of the

enemy: had created, were concentrated in this The Russians possessed other ad, formidable host. It was composed of vantages for the approaching contest, soldiers grown old in victory, or of which may seem almost to have overthe successors of those who had pe. balanced those of the enemy. They had rished in the midst of triumphs; and been driven into a state of warfare by

paign, though afterwards increased; and we may fairly conclude, that those which were to be engaged in immediate service were at least equally complete, if not more so. The total force would therefore stand thus, and the subsequent losses shew that this statement must be tolerably correct :O corps Infantry, 30,000 each,

270,000 9th corps Victor's Reserve,

45,000 11th do. Augereau's do.

60,000 5 Divisions Cavalry, under Murat,

50,000 Imperial Guards, Infantry,

30,000 Garrison of Dantzic,

20,000 Austrian Contingent,

30,000 Polish Troops, Deserters from Russia,

20,000 Polish Levies,

40,000 Effective Men,

565,000 Followers of various descriptions,

50,000

615,000

Vide “ Statement of the Populatiop of Russia," &c. by James M'Queen, Glasgow, R$ 12,

the necessity of defending their country commands of his superiors, or to disrefrom a foreign yoke; they had made gard the calls of religion and patriotism every concession

which justice and poli. in the hour of danger. The fear of death cy demanded, and it was almost certain, never invaded his

breast ; the wretched therefore, that the people would be sophistry which would have made him animated by the most furious and des. indifferent to the fate of his country, perate courage. They had few distin.

was too subtle for his honest mind; guished generals, but they had many the impiety, which in the more civilimen of bold and vigorous minds, who zed states of Europe has threatened required only the strange combination to unhinge society, had never penetraof circumstances, which Buonaparte ted the remote regions which he dewas hastening, to draw forth their lighted to call his home. The Rusnatural talents. The military art, it sian government thus possessed the has been often remarked, 'requires most powerful resources of defence in not the highest gifts, either of the the genius, condition, and character of head or heart ; and barbarous nations the people in their native braveryin general possess a great deal more of their passive obedience--their devoted that species of talent which qualifies a patriotism, and their amiable superstiman for the conduct of a fierce and tion. Had a general and decisive battle obstinate contest, than their more po- been risked at the beginning, the scilished neighbours. The Russian ge ence and discipline of the enemy might nerals might be defective in science, indeed have prevailed, but the triumph but they possessed, in great perfec. would have been achieved only after tion, all the characteristics of patient, the most severe loss, and the progress daring, and intrepid soldiers. In their of the enemy would have been over natural and personal qualifications—in the dead bodies of the Russians. With courage and perseverance, they ex population so brave and persevering, celled their antagonists ; and it was that nothing could overcome its reto be hoped, that a protracted strug: sistance a country so extended, that gle would bestow on them that ex a million of soldiers would have been perience in which they might at first unable to retain even military possesbe deficient. The Russian soldiers sion of it, and an army, which in numhad long maintained a very high cha. bers was nearly equal, in courage suracter ; if they were less active than perior, and in discipline alone inferior, the French, they were far more reso to the enemy, there seemed to be but lute and steady, if their onset might little chance that the French would be less hasty and vigorous, they could succeed in their enterprise. sustain the conflict with more firmness Before entering upon hostilities, to and determinacion ; if they had less which Buonaparte seemed in this indiscipline, they had more native cou. stance more than usually reluctant, he rage ; if they could not rally so fast, addressed, through his minister for fo. neither would they be so soon thrown reign relations, various remonstrances into disorder; if they had not, in the to the Russian government. Russia, present instance, the hopes of conquest he said, had violated the treaty of Tilto animate them, they had a sense of du. sit; that treaty, the principles of which ty, the feelings of patriotism, and the she had solemnly espoused in her de. sanctions of religion to confirm their na- claration of war against England. So tive bravery. The Russian soldier was soon as the ukase of the Russian gonever known to abandon the post com- vernment, permitting the importation mitted to his charge to disobey the of British goods under neutral flage

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had been issued, the treaty of Tilsit, rence of Russia in favour of the Duke was at an end. The Emperor of Rus. of Oldenburgh, who, as a member of sia had forgotten all that he owed to the confederation of the Rhine, was the clemency and magnanimity of the under the protection of France alone, French government. The seizure of and he would have acceded even to Oldenburgh was necessary to the con such a modification of the continental tinental system ; but Russia, in con. system, as the necessary wants of Rus. tempt of her solemn obligations, had sia should seem to demand ; but the resisted this seizure, had remonstrated course pursued by Russia indicated against it, and had even gone so far as clearly that she wished not to secure to dissuade the duke from accepting the independence of the duchy of the indemnity which France was will. Warsaw, but to seize upon it herself ; ing to have bestowed on him. These that she cared not about the Duke of events occurred in 1810, but in 1811 Oldenburgh, except as she might make the real designs of Russia, said her his affairs a pretext for quarrelling enemy, became still more apparent. with France ; and that it was not her The Russian armies, raised and sup own commerce she wished to cherish, ported at an enormous expence, now but the alliance of England, which threatened the army of the duchy of she was desirous of cultivating. Warsaw, which was compelled to re To these groundless accusations pass the Vistula, although at this very Russia could have no difficulty in remoment all the French troops were plying. Some doubts, however, seem within the Rhine, excepting 40,000 still to have hung over the mind of the men stationed at Hamburgh to pre- Emperor Alexander ; and great as his serve the public tranquillity. These preparations had been, great as was preparations could have but one ob the necessity for dissolving his omi. ject ; yet the French emperor, still nous alliance with France, he

yet

he unwilling to believe that Russia would sitated to commit every thing to the agair commit herself in a struggle decision of the sword.' Buonaparte, with France, proposed an arrangement in the meantime, took care to strength. which should have been satisfactory. en the cause of his enemies by some The independence of the duchy of acts of unequivocal violence and perWarsaw, as stipulated by the treaty of fidy; for, instead of evacuating Prussia

, Tilsit--the annexation of Oldenburgh, he occupied in greater force than be. which the war with England had ren fore those parts of it from which Rus. dered indispensable, and which the spi- sian Poland could be most advantagerit, if not the letter, of the treaty of ously assailed, and then proceeded to Tilsit prescribed the recall of 'the seize Swedish Pomerania.—The Rus. ukase of 1810, and the enactment of sian ambassador, in his reply, availed clear and efficient laws against trade in himself of these circumstances ; he obEnglish goods, and with denationali- served, that the real, and not the nozed vessels, were the conditions on minal, neutrality of Prussia, was indiswhich Buonaparte was still desirous pensable to the security of th Russian of coming to a good understanding empire ; that the sincerity of France with Russia.

Had the independence in her pretended alliance with the latof the duchy of Warsaw been ac ter power was more than questionable, knowledged, Buonaparte would have while this important article of the bound himself to attempt nothing for treaty of Tilsit remained unperformed, the freedom of the Poles; he would and 'while the Russian frontier was have consented even to the interfe thus at all times exposed to the incur

sions of the enemy. Russia, however, liation of England, formed the great was still desirous of cultivating friend- incitements to the enterprise on which ly relations with France ; and should Buonaparte was about to enter.—A Buonaparte instantly recognise the in- nominal treaty with Prussia, whose redependence of the Prussian states, and sources were already at the disposal of faithfully evacuate the fortresses, di.. France, and a new treaty with Ausminish the garrison of Dantzic, restore tria, in which that power engaged to Swedish Pomerania, and come to a sa contribute 30,000 men to support

the tisfactory arrangement with Sweden, war with Russia, and recognized the the Russian government would agree principles of the treaty of Utrecht, to maintain the continental system were also presented on this occasion.. throughout its doininions, to modify Nothing but the deep degradation of the custom-house duties agreeably to Austria was manifested in these unthe desire of France, and rest satisfied worthy compliances. with the indemnity which France might On the 9th of May Buonaparte set offer for the duchy of Oldenburgh. out from St Cloud, and on the 6th of While adhering to the principle of the June he passed the Vistula. On the continental system, however, she claim- 22d of the same month he issued a ed a right of trading by licence agree- formal declaration of war against Rusably to the practice of France herself, sia ; and in the address to his soldiers, - most reasonable demand, which which accompanied it, he gave full even the usual arrogance of Buona- scope to his natural arrogance. He acparte could scarcely have resisted. cused Russia of breaking her alliance The strain of this reply shewed that with France at the instigation of Engthe Russian goverument had not yet land. He dared to pronounce that adopted with firmness the line of poli- she was dragged on by fatality, and cy which it ultimately determined to that her destinies must be accomplishpursue towards the French ruler. ed. He promised his soldiers that the

No answer was made by France to second campaign of Poland would be this remonstrance on the part of Rus no less glorious than the first ; that sia, and the scenes which followed are the peace which he should conclude very characteristic of Buonaparte and would be its own guarantee, and that his

government. He set off with his Russia should for ever be excluded minister to join the army ; the Russian from exerting the unnatural influence ambassador of course applied for pass, which she had too long maintained in ports, and Buonaparte had the effron- the affairs of Europe.--It was retery to declare, that this step “ decided marked by an illustrious Englishman, the rupture.” Before he quitted Pa- who had an opportunity of judging of ris, the usual report on the state of Buonaparte's real character, by freFrance had been laid before him by quent intercourse with him, that his his minister for foreign affairs, in which talents were not of the very first orthe approaching war with Russia was der, but that the intoxication produdescanted upon with much formality. ced by unexpected success was visible New charges against Russia were made in his whole deportment. His style, in this document; it was asserved that characterized chiefly by a laborious in the fatal Austrian war of 180. the effort to reach the sublime, seems, in Russian contingent of auxiliary troops some measure, to favour the opinion ; had not been brought forward. It now and never, surely, was this false elevaappeared more manifest than ever, that tion more apparent than on the prethe continental system, and the humi- sent occasion. For his past successes

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