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the city without opposition. They authorities contributed to the restora. were at last assailed, however, by a tion of order ; and, above all, the restrong body of French infantry and appearance of the magnanimous Ros, cavalry, and must have been cut to topschin filled every heart with confipieces but for the opportune arrival of dence and joy. General Iliovaskoy, with the whole Those who recollect, that to the force under his command, by whom councils and example of this nobleman the French were repulsed.- Winzen- the abandonment of Moscow has been gerode was thus enabled to draw his chiefly ascribed, and whose hearts are forces round Moscow; and on the 22d too cold to sympathize with the feelhe passed the barriers of the city, ings which at this moment inspired overthrew the enemy, and drove them the people of Russia, may wonder under the guns of the citadel. At that the apparent author of so many this moment the Russian general, ac calamities should have excited any companied by his aid.de-camp, rode other sentiments than those of horror forward to the French lines, carrying and indignation. To such persons he a flag of truce, to intimate that furwill appear in the light only of a des. ther resistance by the enemy must be perate and unrelenting barbarian, fillvain, and to propose a capitulation. ed with vulgar antipathies towards the The French answered by making the more civilized enemies of his country, general and his aid-de-camp prisoners. and altogether regardless of the sufferThis singular violation of the usages ings of his fellow creatures. -A very of war animated the Russians with re different view of his character was ta. sistless fury; and on the morning of the ken by his more generous country23d of October, when the first mine men, who attributed to his wise counwas about to be sprung, which was to cils, and heroic resolution, the deliver. level the Kremlin to the ground, they ance of their country from a foreign marched forward under their general, yoke. He was not one of those selfIliovaskoy, and seized the incendiaries ish patriots, who advise others to with the torches in their hands. Thus submit to sacrifices from which they was the Kremlin saved, and what re themselves would shrink; for as he mained of Moscow recovered to the was among the most resolute of his Russian empire. Although Buona- countrymen in recommending eternal parte, in his report, had remarked, resistance to the enemy, so was he as that the Kremlin exists no more," among the foremost in setting an scarcely any part of it had been inju- example of the virtues which he so red; and the Russians, besides reco- strenuously inculcated. Besides his vering their ancient capital, had the houses in Moscow, he had a fine villa satisfaction of saving from the flames in the neighbourhood, to which he thousands of sick and wounded French, set fire with his own hands, having with whom the palace, as well as the first affixed to one of the gates the neighbouring churches, was crowded. following singular notification : “ For The inhabitants of Moscow returned eight years I found my pleasure in to their desolated city; their wants embellishing this country retreat. I were supplied as well as circumstances lived here in perfect happiness within would permit ; and every effort was the bosom of my family ; and those made to mitigate as much as possible around me largely partook of my fethe severity of suffering, which no hu- licity. But you approach, and the man power could altogether relieve. peasantry of this domain, to the num. The return of the civil and military ber of 1720 human beings, fly for
mercy, and I set fire to my house! will find nothing but ashes."-So long We abandon all, we consume all, that as this memorable campaign shall be neither ourselves nor our habitations remembered, the name of Rostopschin may be polluted with your presence. will be pronounced with exultation Frenchmen, I left to your rapacity and delight by all those who have any two of my houses in Moscow, full of sympathy with the noblest virtues of furniture and valuables, to the amount human nature. of half a million of rubles. Here
Russian Affairs cantinued. The French prepare to retreat. They are sur
rounded by Difficulties. Account of the numerous Engagements which occurred during the Retreat-Of the Sufferings of the French-Of the Dispersion of their Armies, and their Expulsion from the Russian Empire. Buonaparte returns to Paris, and the Russians оссару
The reoccupation of the capital by provincial detachments, and no pros. the Russian troops, was an event of pęct before him but the vengeance such importance, that the general-in. of an armed nation, threatening an. chief immediately availed himself of nihilation to the whole of his
army. the opportunity now offered him for In every Russian he beheld a hero developing his plains, and explaining disdainful of his fallacious promises ; to his soldiers the condition to which in every state of the empire he met their enemies had been reduced, and an insurmountable rampart of pethe glorious prospects which began to ril to his efforts.
After sustaining unfold themselves. The address, which incalculable losses by the attacks of he circulated throughout the army, our brave troops, he recognized at contained many just remarks and noble last the frenzy of his expectations, sentiments ; and at the same time gave that the foundation of the empire so faithful a description of the state of would be shaken by his possession of Russian feelings at this great crisis, Moscow. Nothing remained for him that it shall be inserted. It is dated but a precipitate flight ; the resolution the 31st of October, and declared to was no sooner taken than it was exebe for the instruction of the troops: cuted ; and he fled, abandoning nearly “ At the moment in which the enemy the whole of his sick to the mercy
of entered Moscow," says the general- an outraged people, and leaving Mosin-chief, “ he beheld the destruction cow on the 23d of the month comof those vain hopes by which he had pletely evacuated. The horrible ex. been flattered; he expected to find cesses which he committed while in there plenty and peace; on the con that'city are already well known, and trary, he saw himself deprived of every have left an unconquerable desire of necessary of life ; harassed by long vengeance in the bottom of every Rusmarches ; exhausted for want of pro- sian heart ; but I have to add, that visions ; wearied by our parties inter- his impotent rage exercised itself in cepting his slender resources ; losing, blowing up part of the Kremlin, without the honour of battle, thou- where, by a signal interference of Disands of his troops, cut off by our vine Providence, the sacred temples
and cathedral have been saved. Let Wittgenstein, which the enemy scarce. us then hasten to pursue this impiously attempted to interrupt. The French, enemy, while other Russian armies, however, for a moment weakened their once more occupying Lithuania, act force, and withdrew from Mittau; in concert with us for his destruction. and Essen, knowing the importance Already do we behold him in full of this station, hastened to occupy flight, abandoning his baggage, burn it, and succeeded almost without ing his war carriages, and reluctantly resistance -General D’Yorck, who separating himself from those treasures commanded the Prussians in this which his profane hands had torn from quarter, advanced to retake the posi. the very altars of God. Already de- tion. Essen, aware of the great supestruction and famine spread confusion riority of the assailants, deemed it pru. before Napoleon, and behind him arise dent to retire in the direction of Riga, the murmurs of his troops, like the where he endeavoured to unite his ar. sound of threatening waves. While my to that of General Steingel, who these appalling sounds attend the re was acting in front of this place. treat' of the French, in the ears of the Steingel's position was at this time Russians resounds the name of their threatened by the French, who had magnanimous monarch. Listen, sol. assembled in considerable numbers in diers, while he thus addresses you, the vicinity of Petergoff, and occupied
Extinguish the flames of Moscow in a station which gave them many ad. the blood of our invaders.' Russians, vantages. The Russian general advan. let us obey this solemn command; our ced to the neighbourhood of a small injured country, appeased by this great village called Garossen, where, on the vengeance, will then retire satisfied morning of the 31st of September, a from the field of war, and behind the
severe engagement took place, in which line of her extensive frontier will take the French succeeded at first in driher august station, between peace and ving the Russians from their position, glory. Russian warriors, God is our but were afterwards repulsed.-A leader!” –This address had great ef. similar attempt was made by the fect throughout the army, and redou- enemy four several times during the bled the zeal of the soldiers to avenge day, and the same result regularly
fole the cause of their country.
lowed. These affairs, and the intelliWhile these great events occurred gence that the Russians had received in the neighbourhood of Moscow, considerable reinforcements at Riga, some affairs of considerable moment induced Macdonald to form a closer took place in other quarters. A short junction with the Prussians ; and this summary of these events, which may movement had the effect of liberating fix attention on the state of the de. the corps which Wittgenstein had star tached corps during the intermediate tioned to observe the French marshal period, will be necessary to a right at Dinaburg. The Prussian auxilia. understanding of their movements and ries did not exert themselves on this operations, when they came to act un occasion with very great zeal; der one great system against the re French already began to abandon the treating enemy. The army of Gene- shores of the W wina ; and the Russian ral Essen, in the neighbourhood of generals, unable to comprehend the Riga, for some time maintained the object of these singular movements position which it had taken up with thought that the enemy prepared to out molestation, and preserved its unite the whole of his tenth division
, communication with the corps of Count and fall at once upon Riga with bio
combined forces. The Marquis of quickly carried by the Russiaris at the the entry Panlutchi, who had assumed the com point of the bayonet ; the battle raged cupt. Tak mand at Riga, took some additional in the streets; and St Cyr, perceiving
measures of defence in consequence of that all hope of resistance was vain, w from these speculations ; but far different gave orders for a retreat. General g the indeed were the motives which now Steingel had in the meantime advanced
influenced the enemy's generals from in a different direction, and had driven alonet e those which were thus ignorantly as the French to the very intrenchments D'Porscribed to them.
which surrounded Polotsk, so that Prussas i The army of Steingel pursued its their retreat seemed to be cut off.pretaket march after the advantages which it There was no alternative left to the
had just gained ; and on the 10th of enemy.; and by three o'clock of the it, dpd October found itself in close commu- morning of the 20th of October he directiez nication with a part of Wittgenstein's evacuated the city, crossed the Dwina, -ed to et corps near Drissa.
Wittgenstein in. and took the road towards Vilezka, ral deze stantly determined to turn so fortu. where he hoped to join his broken
nate a circumstance to good account, corps to that of Marshal Victor, who
by attacking the enemy at Polotsk, was now on his march to join the Ferski driving him from his works in that grand army with his reinforcements.-oblee neighbourhood, and forcing him to re- Thus terminated these sanguinary en
treat by Vitepsk, where he must be *gagements, in which the enemy susentirely separated from Macdonald.- tained a heavy loss in killed and woundOn the morning of the 18th of Octo- ed, besides 2000 prisoners, among ber Count Wittgenstein's troops were
whom were 15 officers of different in motion ; by sun-rise the advance of ranks, including the general-in-chief both armies was engaged ; and the St Cyr. The loss of the Russians was
French right was quickly attacked with also severe. -As the enemy was vigorJare great spirit by Wittgenstein in person. ously pursued in his retreat by the ca
St Cyr, who commanded the enemy, valry belonging to the army of General and who had done every thing to re- Steingel, the whole country around cover his army that became an able was soon cleared, and St Petersburgh commander, saw his right give way be. was happily delivered from the alarm fore the impetuosity of the Russians, which had been excited by the operaand ordered up to its support a strong tions of this part of the invading army. body of Bavarians, Saxons, and Poles. The Russian general-in-chief had The fight was renewed with greater ordered all the armies to advance with fury than before, but the enemy was the greatest rapidity, around the recompelled to yield to the valour of the treating enemy.-And here it is proRussians: the confusion which over
per to mention, that in the month took his right spread rapidly through of September, the armies of the Dahis other columns, and the retreat be- nube and of 'Tormozoff, had united came general. The French retired in the neighbourhood of Loutsk ; within their intrenchments, and main. while the enemy 'had again over-run tained an unavailing cannonade against those parts of Volhynia which he had their pursuers.--At five o'clock in the for a time abandoned. The Polish afternoon of the following day the Rus- division under Dombrowski once more sians again advanced, and the enemy communicated with those of Renier began to pour among them a dreadful and Prince Schwartzenberg; and sefire from his intrenchments. The pa- veral affairs unimportant, but for the lisadoes, which guarded the city, were gallantry displayed on both sides, oc