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to their force, are still a minority of will allow ourselves to be reformed a the people of this country. But no- little, and suffer the government to be thing is so likely to convert that mi- brought something nearer the pure and nority into a majority, as feeble, grace- perfect model of democracy that ought less concessions on our part, conces. to exist in this house ; they will resions by which we shall forsake the joice at the principle we shall admit, vantage ground on which we stand, by but they will require, and justly rewhich we shall surrender our best wea- quire, that we should follow it up with pons of defence, by which we shall in- much larger concessions ; they will crease the strength of our enemies, laugh at our moderate reform, and treat without at all abating their rancour. us with scorn for believing, that, after Sir, in every age, and in every coun. having been so long kept out of their try, those who have been entrusted clear, and, by ourselves, acknowledged with the power of the state, have had rights, they will at last be satisfied by to contend with something which for the restoration of a small and insignithe moment has been the favourite pro- ficant part of them. They will project of vain, ambitious, or mistaken ceed, as indeed, to do them justice, men. In our days they have thought they have openly and manfully declafit to aim at a vital part, and the con- red, in their own way, and upon their stitution of parliament is what we have own principles.---principles utterly into defend, and what it will require our compatible with that order of things utmost efforts to secure. Indeed, the under which we have hitherto lived, very nature and condition of man al- and under which, I am not ashamed to most forbid one to expect, that bless. say, I am still desirous to live. We ings 80 great as those we enjoy under may purchase a truce with these perthe existing order of things, should, sons, but there can be no real peace, for long together, be held without in no substantial agreement between us. terruption, and without struggle. For No concordat could be framed by that struggle, I trust, we are prepa. which they can enter into our church, red; since, if I am not much deceived, or we into theirs. Sooner or later the it will be long, perilous, and doubtful. difference must break out, and the reBut, at least, let us have no paltry in sistance must be made ; and those effectual compromise. Let us make our which my honourable friend considers stand uponour immemorial usages,upon as timely concessions, and healing meathe wisdom of our ancestors, and far sures, are, in fact, only so many demore--for there are persons to whom monstrations of weakness and irresoluthese things seem light- upon the prac- tion, which, though they may stagger tical benefits we have derived from the the faith, and chill the zeal of the great present system in times of singular dif. body of the people who are still true ficulty and danger. This is our only to the constitution, will neither gain to chance either for dignity or safety; us a single useful proselyte, nor retard but if we come at last with our mi. our fate by a single hour. serable canting confession, implied or “Sir, I beg pardon for having deexpressed, that we, heretofore falsely tained the house. so long, but I was and fraudulently denominating our anxious not to lose this opportunity selves the Commons of England, are of expressing my settled aversion to not the Commons of England, and

this and all similar measures.

If, for that we are too weak and too corrupt any thing that I have said, I am to manage the affairs that have been thought less true to the principles of .entrusted to us, and that therefore we free government, or less attached to

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seda those with whom I have hitherto act. boldest deeds upon the most enlightto be

ed, it will be to me a matter of the ened principles, and who had not hes

most serious concern. I have always sitated, in defence of their civil and ught been, and still am, a sincere and zeal-, religious liberties, to hurl their

sove. ous friend to civil and religious free. reign from his throne, and begin a dom, and I have therefore been anxi. new era in the history of their counous that the conduct of affairs should try. And yet, sir, when the authors, be entrusted to persons resting upon and supporters of that measure had some more solid and constitutional ba- accomplished their object, when Lord siś of power than mere court favour, Halifax, and Lord Somers, and Lord,

and that some check should be given Godolphin, and Lord Sunderland, Chei to the influence of the crown, so in- the Cavendishes, and the Russells, get creased with our increasing establish- when all the great families, and all the

ments, and with these objects in view most illustrious individuals, who acted
I have been naturally led to concur, upon what were then called Whig

for the most part, with those that op: principles, imagined, vainly (as it has tice, posed the ministers of the crown. But been lately discovered,) and foolishly

if these objects, the attainment of imagined, that they had reared a fa. he

which I do not despair of under the bric under which they and their pos-
existing order of things, are to be terity might live to happiness and to
pursued by means of a change in the glory, the people of England were
constitution of the country, if we are just as imperfectly represented in par-
to put every thing at stake in order to

liament as they are now.

In those remedy a partial grievance, why then, days, as well as in these, the elective sir, I can only say, that " non hæc in franchise was vested in decayed towns fædera veni," I have made no such and in small corporations; and, as far engagement, I will embark in no such

it can be ascertained as many perby design, I will subscribe to none of sons owed their seats to individual influ. ch

these new articles of faith, borrowed ence as at the present moment, and yet
from the Gallican church, to be add. no person appears so much as to have
ed to our ancient creed. The “ Bo- pretended that these anomalies were
rough System,” as it is invidiously in their nature grievances, or that it
called, existed very nearly in its pre was necessary to render the House of
sent form in what are justly consider. Commons a purely democratical as.
ed as the best times. Perhaps the na- sembly in order to preserve the liber-
ture of liberty may be a great deal ties of the people. Be it right or be
better understood now than it was by it wrong, this doctrine is not of an-
our ancestors, and it may be idle to cient date, as some persons idly pre-
appeal to the authority of statesmen tend, and without the least colour of
who flourished a hundred years ago. authority from history or tradition,
For my own part, however, I am not but is the mere offspring of the age
ambitious to live and die under a bet- in which we live. Whether or not it
ter constitution than that which was is to prevail, whether the present or-

bequeathed to us by those great men der of things draws to a close, or Ety

that brought about the Revolution of whether, notwithstanding some unfa,
1688. These men were neither igno- vourable appearances, the same good
rant of the foundation upon which sense and good fortune, which have
their rights rested, nor timid or luke- conducted the people of England to
warm in asserting them; they were that pinnacle of prosperity on which
men capable of proceeding to the they now stand, will be sufficient to

VOL. V. PART I.

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avert their minds from these delusive dead weight. But if they struck off phantoms of imaginary happiness and from the list all who were in possesunattainable perfection, I am as yet sion of places on the one side, he ho. unable to foresee ; I am willing to ped they would not object to strike hope for the best ; but there are symp- off all who were in expectation of toms in the public mind and in the places on the other. And they would conduct of some of our most eminent give him leave to couple with this public men, that make me tremble for consideration a request that it might the worst."

be remembered, that a place could be Allusions were made in the course possessed but by one, but it could be of the debate to the number of place. expected by more than one. Let men and pensioners in the house, to them then take away

those who

pos. whose votes the triumphs of ministers sessed places on the one side, and who over their opponents were of course expected them on the other, and be ascribed. These reflections drew a would be perfectly willing to go to a short reply from Mr Perceval, of division with the rest." Besides its which the following passage places intrinsic merit, this passage will not this famous topic of declamation in a be without interest to many readers ; very luminous point of view. " He the words were among the last which had no objection to the lists of the were spoken by Mr Perceval in the majority and minority being dissect. House of Commons. The speech, of ed. If this were done in order to leave which this forms a part, was pronounnone who were biassed by interest in ced on Friday the 8th May, 1812, and favour of government, all the place. on Monday the 11th this great and men would be at once struck off as a virtuous man was assassinated.

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ор I wi

Returns under the Population Act laid before Parliament. Barrack Estimates.

Debates on some recent Appointments. Mr Creevey's Motion respecting the
Tellership of the Exchequer. Sinecure Office Bill. The Budget Finance
Resolutions.

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The increase of population has, in of protracted warfare have not been
general, been considered by statesmen felt, but that the energies of the coun.
as a great advantage in itself, and an try have risen superior to the difficul.
unequivocal symptom of the prosperi- ties with which it has been surround-
ty and happiness of the state. The ed, the advantages of an increased po-
researches of an able and original wri- pulation are at once unquestionable
ter of the present day have thrown new and unmixed ; and the reasons for con-
lights on the subject; they have shewn gratulating the country on such a state
that a proposition which was once al. of things may be deduced from the
most universally received, must be ta most enlarged and liberal principles of
ken under important limitations; that political philosophy. Such was, in
the increase of population is not in it. fact, the state of England, after twen-
self a positive good, but may in some ty years of general warfare, in which
cases be a very strong symptom of mis. she took so great a part and made so
government, and that it is only when conspicuous a figure.
the means of subsistence are increased A comparative statement of the po.
in the same ratio with the numbers of pulation of the several counties of
the people, that the rapid growth of Great Britain in the years 1801 and
population ought to be desired. The 1811, together with the returns under
general principle which pervades the the act passed in the last session of
Essay on Population must command parliament, were laid before the House
the assent of all who are capable of un- of Commons. "It may be proper to
derstanding the subject; but, like many mention here, that no regular census
other excellent principles, it is often had been taken of the population of
forgotten amid the complication of de. England, Scotland, and Wales, until
tails, and the variety of aspects which the year 1801, when Mr Abbot's bill
every great political question presents was passed, which was followed up in
in its application to practice. But the last session by Mr Rose's act, un-
when we find that population has been der which the late enumeration was
increasing, while the comforts of the completed. When the accounts were
great body of the people have, at the presented, Mr Rose made some excel-
same time, been improved ; that the lent remarks on this important sub-
losses inevitably sustained in a course ject.--From the papers on the table,

ven

it appeared, that, in the course of the the people with food. The high price last ten years, viz. since the census of of provisions at home, and the uncer1801, an increase of population, to the tainty of a supply of grain from other amount of more than one million and countries, called upon the legislature a half, had taken place. In England to devise means to enable the country that increase appeared to be in a ra to sustain its population independent. tio of fourteen per centum, in Wales ly of foreign aid. The amount of twelve, and in Scotland thirteen. This the importations of grain was placed increase of population exhibited an in a clear point of view by an account extent and duration unexampled in the produced about the same time with history of the country : and what was the returns of the population. By that still more surprising, the increase of account it appeared, that during elethe males had been as great as that years, from 1775 to 1786, the of the females. The total popula. average quantity of grain imported antion of England, Scotland, and Wales, nually was 564,413 quarters; from in 1801, was 10,472,048 ; it now 1787 to 1798, 1,136,101 quarters ; amounted to 11,911,644, making an and from 1799 to 1810, including three increase of 1,439,596 persons actually years of scarcity, 1,471,003 quarters. resident in the country; which, add. The average prices were 30s. per quar. ed to 170,000 serving in the army and ter, in the first period, 40s. in the senavy abroad, made a total amount of cond, and 60s. in the third. During 1,609,498. It is a singular proof of the last year not less than 4,271,0001. the energies of the country, that the went out of the country for the suste. population should have increased so nance of the inhabitants-a matter of fast, when the drain of men for the most serious importance to the public army, navy, and mercantile service is interest. By another account, it apconsidered. It might be said, that at peared that the consumption of wheat a period when the country exhibited and flour imported from foreign counsuch an increased population, employ. tries, had been progressively increament for the lower orders had dimi. sing from 1775 to the present time. nished; but in the manufacturing coun In 1810, the quantity imported was ties, and there only, had a temporary 693,000 quarters, which clearly profailure occurred. Every where else, ved that the increase in the consumpthe demand for labour kept pace with tion of wheat was greater than that the increase of the population. But which had taken place in all the other taking the whole circumstances of the kinds of grain ; and that those who country into consideration, it was of did not formerly consume wheat, now great importance to the empire that the made it a principal part of their population exhibited this progressive food.-To meet the growing wants of increase. Some persons wereof opinion, the population, without having rethat the apparent increase in the pre course to foreign countries, formed sent census arose, in some measure, one of the great objects of an enfrom the imperfect execution of the lightened legislation. The inclosure former act; but the census of 1801, of commons and waste lands had been which was entrusted to the same per. carried to a great extent ; but had not sons who were employed on the pre- kept pace with the necessities of the sent occasion, was very nearly correct. country. All the lands fit for the A subject of very grave importance growth of barley, oats, &c. Mr Rose stood connected with this increase of observed, should be continued under population-the facility of supplying that species of tillage ; and every en

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