markable clause, “ provided always the other side of the house. The genthat no offices shall from henceforward tleman most worthy of being selected, be granted in reversion.”. Now when might, in duty to himself and his fa. all the sinecures are abolished, nothing mily, be compelled to refuse office, can be left of which the reversion may unless the crown had something to be given, as it is well known that effi- bestow in addition to the regular sacient offices cannot be thus granted.- lary. The existence of sinecure offi. In the offices of clerk of the first-fruits ces would, in the above circumstanand custos brevium a fee-simple had ces, contribute materially to the in. been granted; it was absurd, there. dependence of the crown, and to the fore, to talk of making any alteration support of its proper rank in the on them, while a disposition to protect constitution.-Some persons concei. allvested interests was professed. The ved the influence of the crown to be law offices in the disposal of the chief exorbitant ; but an appeal might be justices were of course vested interests made to the good sense of the counin the present holders which could not try, whether that influence was too be taken from them. The labours of great. The progress of information these high officers, particularly of the and the accumulation of wealth had chief justice of the King's Bench, communicated of late years to the ariswould be very ill paid, but for the ad- tocratic and democratic branches of dition to their other emoluments deri- the constitution, far more weight and ved from their right to dispose of the influence, than all the existing offices offices which it was now intended to together, with the increased patronage abolish ; and, if the abolition should of the army, and the collection of the take place, the salaries of the judges revenue, had bestowed on the crown. must be greatly augmented.But the Even the late debates and divisions in principle of the bill was perfectly ab- the House of Commons proved, that surd and extravagant; it amounted in there existed no such preponderating fact to this, that the crown should not influence as the crown was supposed have the power of securing for the to exert over parliament. The propublic service men who might be the posed measure could not be a matmost capable of serving it with advan- ter of indifference as it respected the tage, unless they chanced to be in cir- crown; and it was for the wisdom of cumstances which might enable them parliament to say, whether it would to resign without inconvenience all not lead to the dangerous diminution other professions or pursuits. It is of an influence which is by no means only by such places as those which this too extensive. A great blow would be bill would abolish, that the crown has given to the monarchy were the crown the power of prevailing on men who deprived of the means of calling any are not independent in their fortunes, man to its service not completely in. and who must look to their own exer- dependent in his fortune. A pension, tions for the support of their families, after service for a certain number of to enter into the public service. Sup. years, would by no means form an pose that the sovereign, at any future adequate inducement, as every man of period, were to be surrounded by aris- proper feeling would prefer the means tocratical combinations, and that to of providing permanently for his fapreserve his proper place in the consti- mily, to any provision which was to be tution, he should deem it necessary to made merely for his own life. These call to his service some gentleman from arguments proved unsuccessful ; the


report of the committee was agreed to, of that eminent man.--Mr Vansittart, and the bill ordered to be read a third in the speech which he delivered on time.

bringing forward the budget, recapiThe enormous amount of the ex tulated the charges of the year, and penditure of Great Britain, and the afterwards proceeded to the statement system of finance which it has been of the ways and means by which it was found convenient to adopt, have in proposed that those charges should be volved the public accounts in great defrayed. For the navy, exclusive of perplexity and confusion. This is the ordnance for the sea service, the sum ala , result, however, of the magnitude and ready voted was 19,702,3991. ; for the intricacy of the subject alone ; for it army, including barracks and commis, cannot be denied that the utmost skill sariat, and the military service of Ireand talent, as well as the greatest in- land, 17,756,1601. The extraordinategrity, have been displayed by go- ries of the army incurred last year, bevernment in reiterated attempts to sim. yond the sum granted, amounted to plify and familiarize the details to the 2,300,000l. ; besides which, there had public mind. As the subject is of the been voted on the same account for greatest interest and importance to the the present year, 5,000,0001. for Great country, the knowledge and acuteness Britain, and 200,0001. for Ireland; and of the most distinguished members on for the ordnance, including Ireland, both sides of the House of Commons, 5,279,8971. The miscellaneous ser. are annually employed in its investiga. vices were stated at 2,350,000l. ; and tion; and so great was the expendi- a vote of credit of 3,000,0001. for ture during the present year, so .se Great Britain, and 200,0001. for Ire. vere were the difficulties which pressed land, was proposed. The subsidies upon the national resourses, that a granted in the present year were neare greater share of attention than usually the same as in the last, being for was devoted to the state of the fin- Sicily 400,0001., and for Portugal

The necessity of imposing 200,0001. These several items amount. some new taxes drew from Mr Van- ed to 58,188,4561.–To these sums sittart, who had succeeded Mr Per- were added 100,2921. for repayment of ceval as Chancellor of the Exchequer, part of the loyalty loan, 1,700,0001

. a detailed exposition of the national voted for interest on exchequer bills, burdens and resources, which was emi- and 2,387,6001. for exchequer bills isnently distinguished for perspicuity. sued on the aids of the year. These Mr Huskisson, Mr Tierney, and Sir three items, amounting to 4,187,8921., Thomas Turton, took an active share constituted the separate charge of in this important discussion; and va. Great Britain, and when added to the rious resolutions were moved, with the sum of 58,188,4561., which was the view of exhibiting a distinct statement total of the supplies before stated, made to the legislature and to the country the general amount of 62,376,3481. of the situation in which the empire Deducting from this the Irish charges stood at this time, with reference to of 7,025,7001., the result was, that the its expenditure and resources.

total of the supplies to be provided by The financial measures for the year

Great Britain for the year 1812, was had been nearly arranged by Mr Per- 55,350,6481. ceval before his death; and his suc Such was the enormous amount of cessor had, with some exceptions, be the charge. The following are the stowed entire approbation on the plans means by which the Chancellor of the


Exchequer proposed that it should be have occasioned, and which sufficient. met :-The annual duties were taken ly proved that the revenue was, upon as usual at 3,000,0001. ; the surplus of the whole, in an improving state. the consolidated fund, including the The estimate of the war taxes had been property tax, 20,400,000l. ; the lot. formed upon the average of the three tery 300,0001. ; the loan in the 5 per years ending the 5th of April, 1812. cent. annuities, contributed by the sub- The war duties of customs and excise, scribers of the exchequer bills in the with some smaller items, amounted to spring of the present year,6,789,6251.; 10,041,566l.; of the property-tax there and exchequer bills intended to be is. would remain for the service of the presued on the vote of credit 3,000,0001. sent year 13,055,000l. ; and adding This last sum would make no addition that sum to the amount of the customs to the unfunded debt, an equal sum and excise, there would be a total of granted on the vote of credit of the war taxes of 23,096,000l. From this last year having been funded and not sum there was deducted 2,706,000l., replaced by any fresh issue. The old appropriated to the charge of various naval stores which had been carried to loans, which left for the ways and means the public account, would produce of the present year, 20,390,0001..The 441,2181. ; the surplus of ways and sum raised on account of Great Brimeans of last year, 2,209,6261. ; and tain, by the loan concluded the prece last of all came the loan contracted ding day, was 15,650,0001. The capifor on the preceding day, 15,650,0001. tal created on account of this sum was These various items amounted to 27,544,0001. 3 per cent. stuck ; on 55,390,4691. ; and the ways and means which an annual charge of 1,110,0231. thus exceeded the supplies by about would arise. The rate of interest to 40,0001.

the subscribers would be 51. 55. 7d. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, per cent., and the total charge to the in further explanation of his views, re public, 71. ls. 10d. This might apmarked, that the surplus of the conso pear a high rate of interest, but it kidated fund had been estimated upon should be remembered, that the sum the average produce of the principal borrowed in the present year had rare. branches of the revenue in the last ly been equalled; and so large a sum three years, adding what was necessary had never been raised on better terms to complete the estimate of the yearly in any period of war. There had been receipt of the permanent duties impo- a former loan in the course of the sed in the last session. The produce of present year, and exchequer bills had all the duties in the quarter ending the been funded to a considerable amount. 5th of July, 1811, fell considerably The exchequer bills funded and the 5 short of the quarter ending the 5th of per cent. loan, amounted together to July, 1810, the quarter ending the 12,221,3251., making in 5 per cent. 10th of October, 1811, fell short also stock, a capital of 13,199,0311., the of the corresponding quarter in 1810; interest of which was 659,9511., and but the quarter ending the 5th of Janu. the sinking fund 131,9901., amountary, 1812, exceeded the quarter ending ing, together with the charge of mathe 5th of January, 1811, by 31,000l.; nagement, to 795,9011. The rate of and the quarter ending the 5th of interest on this sum was 5l. 8s., and April, 1812, exceeded the correspond the total charge 61. 10s. 2 d. per cent. ing quarter in 1811, by no less than The charge to the public on the whole 463,001. a sum much surpassing any money transactions of the year, thereincrease which the new duties could fore, so far as respected the funded

debt, was 61. 168. 9d. per cent. ; and causes. This proposition, therefore, the total amount to be provided for, appeared free from all reasonable ob1,905,9241.

jection; for the remainder of the plan, In proposing new taxes to meet this it could only be said, that in the choice additional charge, the Chancellor of of evils the least had been selected. the Exchequer departed, in some mea

An additional duty was first propo. sure, from the plans of his predeces. sed on tanned hides and skins. " That sor.-His first proposition went mere. this tax would, in some measure, fall ly, to discontinue the bounty on the upon the poor by affecting the price exportation of printed goods. This of shoes, was admitted ; but, in other bounty had grown from a small charge respects, the article appeared a very to a very large one, amounting, up- fit object of taxation; since, in the on an average of the last three years, long list of our taxes, it was almost to the sum of 308,0001., a circum- the only one on which no addition had stance, in one respect, highly satisfac- been made for a great number of years. tory, as it shewed the great increase The former duties had been imposed which had taken place in the exporta- so long ago as the years 1709 and tion of the manufacture ; but it also 1711 ; and it was only proposed, after proved that the necessity of granting the lapse of a whole century, to doua bounty to encourage this exporta- ble them. Another recommendation of tion had ceased, and that considerable the new tax on leather at this time, was advantage might be derived from its the cheap and plentiful supply of the suppression. Printed goods, from raw material, which had, of late years, the improvement in the manufacture, been introduced from South America. and the extensive use of machinery, This supply had been estimated asequal could now be afforded much cheaper, to one-third of the whole manufacture, without the bounty, than they had and had occasioned a very considerabeen formerly even with its assist. ble fall of price in the article, both for

The state of the world, with home consumption and for exportarespect to commerce, was peculiar- tion. Calculating upon an average of ly favourable to the discontinuance of the produce of the former duties for the bounty system. Wherever Bri. the last three years, the additional duty tish manufactures were permitted to was expected to produce 325,0001. a enter, their superiority was universally year. acknowledged ; where they did not An additional duty was next profind their way, it was not on account posed on glass. The duties on this of their dearness or inferior quality, article had been considerably increased but because they were excluded by ri- in 1805 ; but, after an extensive engorous prohibitions : but when these quiry among the manufacturers, Mr should cease, the country might again Perceval had been convinced, that an expect to see its manufactures' spread. additional tax would not be injurious ing themselves over the continent with- to the trade. It was not probable, inout the assistance of bounties. That deed, that the consumption would be which it was now proposed to discon- lessened by the increase of price which tinue, amounted to no more than įd. this duty would occasion, as glass was per yard on printed goods of the worst an article


little in use among the quality, and 14d. a yard on the best, lower classes of society; and such was an amount much within the ordinary the opinion of the manufacturers themluctuations of price from accidental selves, who only asked protection


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against foreign competition, by suffici- auction. It was a common practice in ent duties on importation, and proper sales to mingle such privileged goods, drawbacks on exportation. The pro. with those which were not privileged, duce of this tax, calculating as before, by which means frauds on the revenue on an average of the last three years, were frequently accomplished. It was would be 328,0001.

therefore proposed, that when any The next proposition went to add a goods liable to duty were introduced duty equivalent to 10 per cent. on into a sale of goods which were ex. those already existing on tobacco, an empted from it, the whole should be article of extensive, yet luxurious, ra- immediately rendered chargeable with ther than necessary, use; and one which the duty. From the nature of the case, afforded the best criterion of its abili. nothing like an accurate estimate could ty to bear an additional tax, namely, be formed of the produce of these rethat the consumption of it had pro- gulations ; but, on a due consideration gressively increased under the former of all the circumstances, Mr Perceval dụties. There was no reason to be. had thought that it would not be overlieve that the proposed addition would rated at 100,0001. either diminish the consumption, or The articles hitherto enumerated, materially increase the frauds upon the except the bounty on printed goods, revenue ; and, estimating the produce were all duties of excise. The next on an average as before, it might safely proposal related to the postage of letbe taken at 107,0001.

ters; an addition was intended of a A regulation of the duties already penny on every single letter carried paid on property sold by auction was more than twenty miles, whether from also suggested. It was well known the metropolis or the provincial post that landed estates and other kinds of towns. The necessity of increasing property were frequently put up to this tax, which must operate as a conauction, not for the purposes of a fair siderable charge on commercial corsale, but of ascertaining their value, respondence, was matter of regret ; with a view to private bargains; they yet, when the satisfaction and convewere then bought in, by which the nience derived from the post-office, and duty was avoided, and afterwards dis- the progressive increase of correspondposed of by private contract, at a price ence through the country were consifounded upon the biddings which had dered, no duty would, perhaps, be paid taken place. It had been the inten- with less reluctance. The proposed tion of the legislature, that all persons increase might be estimated, according who obtained the benefit of the com to the present extent of correspondpetition at a public sale, should be ence, at 220,0001. subject to the charge imposed upon All the above articles were such as auctions. It was now proposed, there- had been selected by the late Mr Perfore, that property put up to auction ceval, and would have formed part of should be charged with duty, whether the plan which he intended to have actually sold or bought in ; but that, proposed to parliament. The remainin case it should appear at the end of ing deficiency would, according to the twelve months that the property still intention of the late minister, have belonged to its original owner, the du- been supplied by a tax on private ty should be repaid. It was, also, well brewing - In the year 1806, when the known that many articles, particularly Marquis of Lansdowne held the office of imported merchandise, were exempt. of Chancellor of the Exchequer, he ed from duty, although sold by public had suggested a similar tax, which was

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