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vocates for keeping either clergymen Messiah ; the expectation early enor laymen in ignorance of what it is tertained of a great moral Deliverer ; desirable for them to know; but the rules to be observed in applying “where ignorance is bliss, it is folly passages in the Old Testament to to be wise ;” and we should there. this expected Redeemer; and the fore decidedly discourage a taste passages which the author considers for the study of Neologian divines, as descriptive of him. This last however admirable as critics, in head gives rise to a detailed citation unfledged students. At a future of texts, with critical remarks, period they may know better how many of them highly interesting, to refuse the evil, and choose the and involving considerable research; good; though even then it will require and the whole presenting such an great caution, a chastised spirit, attestation to Jesus Christ the and earnest prayer, to commix with true Messiah, as we see not how such writers without finding the fine any person can evade, without altoedge of Christian feeling blunted by gether setting aside the inspiration the unhallowed contact.

Few men

of the Old Testament. We may were less open to infidel suggestions differ from our author as to some than the late Mr. Romaine, yet he particular details and criticisms, but remarked that Voltaire often haunt the result of the whole is irresistible., ed him in the pulpit, and that he We cannot but quote the following wished he had never opened his summary. Our readers will readily pages. Ministers must be acquaint- supply the Scriptural references. ed with error, as apothecaries keep By a careful and impartial analysis, we poisons; but let them beware how have endeavoured to obtain the separate they try their constitution with de result of each leading part of the proleterious compounds, lest, while theyracter of the then future Messiah. Those

phetic testimony to the person and chaare learning to heal others, they sa- results must now be placed in a connected crifice themselves. We should add, review. that it increases the evil that some

“A series of prophecies, reaching from

the commencement to the close of the of the professors and critics we allude

ancient dispensations, has exhibited to us to, both French and German, are a Great Deliverer from evil, originally facetious in their wickedness, and and repeatedly promised by God, and amuse their pupils or readers with perpetually the object of the desire, ex

pectation, and hope of the best and most very entertaining insults

enlightened men, and of those whom the Divine word ; so that, even though Deity signalized by miraculous communithe critique should be forgotten, the cations of his will, to be by them published jest will be remembered. Our au

as his oracles of his righteousness and

grace. In the process of those declathor, we are persuaded, will concur

rations, this great Personage came to be with us in the spirit of these remarks; designated by a pre-eminent appropriation and we are indebted to him for the of the term, Messiah, to express his severe gravity with which he has excellent qualities and important offices. selected his citations; so as to dis. that the Messiah was to be a real and

“ From those sources we have learned, gust and shock, but never to divert, proper human being; the descendant of the most thoughtless reader. Adam, Abraham, and David ; in some

We gladly turn from this painful peculiar sense, the offspring of the woman; topic, to notice briefly a few other

the perfectly faithful and devoted servant

of God; the messenger, supreme in rank particulars in our author's first above all others, of Divine authority and volume.

grace ; a heavenly Teacher, inspired with The whole of the second book is the fulness of Divine gifts and qualifidevoted to the important inquiry, giver, who should be the author and

cations; the great and universal LawWhat information is afforded con- promulgator of a new, holy, and happy cerning the person of the Messiah government over the moral principles, from the prophetic descriptions of characters, and actions of men; a High the Old Testament? in discussing model'; the Adviser of the wisest coun. which, Dr. Smith treats of the term

sels; the Pacificator and Reconciler of

upon the

rebellious man to God, and of men among vine and peculiar dispensation, that themselves; the kind and powerful Sa

He might be a propitiation for the viour from all moral and natural evil.

" The Divine Oracles have also informed sins of the world. us that, in the execution of these benevolent Our author has a dissertation, purposes, he should undergo the severest which will prove interesting to theosufferings, from the malice of the original logical students, on that remarkable tempter, from the ingratitude and disobedience of men, and from the especial peculiarity of the Hebrew language, circumstance of his devoting himself a and its cognate dialect the Chaldee, voluntary sacrifice to procure the highest by which certain plural nouns and benefits to those of mankind who should attributives are applied to the Diconcur in his plan of mercy and holiness.

“They have assured us that, from his vine Being; the plural appellatives, deep distresses, he should emerge to glory, moreover, being joined to singular victory, and triumph ; that he should verbs, pronouns, and adjectives : as possess power, authority, and dominion, in the very first verse of the Bible: terrible to his determined adversaries, but full of blessing and happiness to his

“ God (Elohim, plural) created " obedient followers, that he should gra- (singular). It has been contended, dually extend those benefits to all nations; on various grounds, that this pecuand that his beneficent reign should be liar construction, which has been holy and spiritual in its nature, and in its duration everlasting.

always relied upon by the orthodox “The testimony of heaven likewise de- as very important and significative, scribes him as entitled to the appellation in fact proves nothing ; that it is a of Wonderful; since he should be, in a sense peculiar to himself, the Son of God; ventional form of speech, but has

mere accident of language, or conas existing and acting during the Patriarchal and the Jewish ages, and even from

no reference to a plurality in unity eternity; as the Guardian and Protector in the Godhead. Dr. Smith gives of his people ; as the proper object of the objections, which are strongly the various affections of piety, of devo relied upon by Socinian expositors, tional confidence for obtaining the most important blessings, and of religious and offers a detailed solution of homage from angels and men.

them; and arrives at the conclusion “ That testimony, finally, declares him to that this peculiarity of idiom oribe the Eternal and Immutable Being, the Creator, God, the Mighty God, Adonai, ginated in a design to intimate a Elohim, Jehovah

plurality in the nature of the One “ These attributions are made to the God; and that thus, in connection Messiah in a remarkable variety of modes, with other circumstances calculated and connected with numerous and diversified relations, bringing into view the to suggest the same conception, it perfections, purposes, and acts of the was intended to excite and prepare Supreme Nature, so as to be a safe aid in the minds of men for the more full eliciting the sense, and to afford much declaration of this unsearchable mutual elucidation.” pp. 535–538.

mystery, which should in proper Dr. Smith attaches, and justly, time be granted. This supposition considerablc weight to the Divine implies, of course, a Divine direcinstitution of anointing, in connexion tion in the origin or in the appliwith the predicted Messiah-Christ cation of the term ; but our author the Anointed. He shews that this thinks that the intention was merely rite was practised under the Jewish to intimate, not to give an absolute dispensation; that a great and ex. declaration : agreeably to the fact clusive importance was attached to that the earlier dispensations of reit, for it was employed only in certain vealed knowledge were constructed cases enumerated ; that it implied upon the plan of a course of intithe idea of peculiar sanctity; and mations (as it were involucra), with that it was observed upon the ground regard to a variety of truths, the of Divine institution. All this, as- clear manifestation of which was suredly, was not casual, but had reserved for the brightness of the direct reference to Him who was Gospel day. We are inclined to set apart to his kingly, his priestly, think that Dr. Smith has been too and his prophetic office, by a Di- abstinent in his conclusions on this CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 344.

3 U

subject ; and that he might, without whose very words, in many cases at least, any violence to his argument, have

were selected and dictated by the inspiused a stronger expression than and style of the Only Living and True

ration of Jehovah-the ordinary name that, upon

the whole,“ the impression God should be in a plural form. Did on his mind is favourable to this some strange and insuperable necessity opinion;" even if he did not go to

lie in the way? Was the language so the full extent of superadding the poor that it could furnish no other term?

Or if so, could not the wisdom of Inspi. word “declaration"to “intimation." ration have suggested a new appellative, The judicious Biblical critic has to and have for ever abolished the hazardous steer bis course between the fancies word ?-None of these reasons existed. of the Hutchinsonians, who see

The ianguage was rich and copious. The

names of the Deity in general and conevery thing in the idiosyncrasies of stant use were more numerous than in the Hebrew language ; and those of either of the beautiful languages of clas, the Neologians and Socinians, who sical antiquity, or in the most cultivated see nothing in them—as Mr. Bel. "That glorious and fearful name Jehovah,'

tongues of modern Europe. Besides shan, for example, did not in this the appropriated and unique style of the very question. It may be the rash True God, and besides other unexcep-. impetuousness of conclusion of the tionable names, there was, as we have former that has led our author, the very word in question. There was

before said, the singular form,

Eloah, of somewhat perhaps too scrupulously, no shadow of necessity, difficulty, or even to soften down the force of his own inducement, for the adoption of a phraseveritable conclusions. One such ology which, on Unitarian principles, powerful argument as the following difficulty, if at all

, be defended from the

every candid mind must confess can with might allow of his using less doubt. charge of pernicious example and very ful words of conclusion than those dangerous tendency.” pp. 510—512. which he employs--words which Dr. Smith has added to his might lead an unwary reader to general argument what, though not think, not merely that his expression strictly essential to the evidence, was modest, but that his mind was assists to illustrate it - namely, an not convinced.

inquiry into the state of opinion and “ The fact which principally requires our expectation among the Jews, with attention is the constant use of Elohim respect to the Messiah, in the peto designate the One and Only God: andriod between the closing of the Old this in the language of the patriarels and Testament and the dissolution of prophets, who spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. It is not a little their national establishment. In this, remarkable that such a circumstance as in other parts of his work, he has, should exist in the sacred books of a with much research, condensed a people who were separated from all other considerable body of facts, which nations for this express object, that they should bear a public and continual protest will greatly interest the theological against polytheism ; a people whose whole student. His general conclusions system of religious, political, and domestic from these facts partake of that usages was calculated, with consummate tantalizing libration of inference to prudence and wisdom, to be a perpetual preservative from polytheistic notions ; a which we have before alluded; and people who were charged by the Eternal which is far from agreeable to those God to destroy every statue, structure, who covet a downright opinion, pro and grove that might recall the memory or contra ; and would prefer any of idolatrous rites, and to extirpate every thing that could be extirpated which had measure of hasty dogmatism to been associated with idolatry, or might be those qualified and much-on-bothconverted into an instrument of its revival, sides conclusions, which are often enjoined to abolish every name of city, the only ones to which, on questions village, or place, which was compounded of this nature, we can safely arrive. with the name of a heathen deity, and to Mr. Belsham, and other Socinians, substitute 'new appellations ; who were had denied that the ancient Jews not even to pronounce those names unless necessity compelled ;-it is not, we may

expected a pre-existent Messiah ; well say, a little remarkable that, in the the contrary opinion is that which saered books of such a people-books is generally received ; and it were

deemer.

p. 623.

sufficient to shew that it is the true ambition and voluptuousness. Thus the one, from a reference to the Old Tes. bulk of the nation japidly lost sight of the tament itself; but it adds strength language of prophecy surrounds its de.

spiritual and holy objects with which the to the argument, that it can be scriptions of the Messiah; and sunk into proved that even in the corrupt the habit of regarding him as a politician days which followed the closing of and a hero. Such an opinion must have the sacred canon this expectation sive views of their Great Deliverer as a

strongly disposed them to take up excluwas not lost, but continued to ani

man merely, and as a man of the world, mate the faithful, in the midst of earthly and carnal in his purposes and his persecution from the heathen, and character. At the same time, the vestiges the mental and moral darkness of hearts of many, whose devotional and re

of purer sentiments still lingered in the their own countrymen. The fol ligious habits of mind would represent lowing is Dr. Smith's summary of the best consolation of Israel' to consist his probable conclusions, relative to in a holy,

in a holy salvation and a spiritual Re

To such persons the ancient the opinions held by the Jews at

faith would present stronger attractions and near the era of Christianity, on than they could feel from the worldly exthe question, of what kind would be pectations with which popular partialities the person and character of their had, entangled their minds; and, though

unable to free themselves entirely from expected Messiah ?

the fond delusion, they would still be “1. Those opinions were sublime. This looking for nobler blessings when the is manifest from the attribution which we Lord whom they sought should suddenly have found of pre-existence, dominion, come to his temple, and as the light of dignity above all the objects of creation, the morning should arise Jehovah, a Sun and properties peculiar to the Deity. without clouds for brightness.'

“II. They were imperfectly understood. The conclusion of this extract This could not but be the case, from the nature of the subject, from the reference of the

seems to us to set the matter in a expectation to a future and unknown time, just light. Indeed, the writings of and from the necessary obscurity belonging the Evangelists shew that this exfrom which these sentiments were drawn. pectation was not lost in their day: “III. They were, in various respects,

and as it most clearly existed in the inconsistent Not only did one theory Old Testament period, we might oppose another, but each appears to have very fairly infer that it also occulaboured under difficulties and contradic- pied the intervening period, even if tions within itself. Of such inconsistency the evidence from Targums, Tal. we have an example in the case of Philo: and it is readily accounted for, from the muds, and Rabbinical writings were mixture of traditionary opinions and di- less forcible than it is. And be it versified hypotheses with the stream of remembered, that, as regards the knowledge derived from the Old Testament propbecies. The subject was in

in present argument, if only a few itself obscure, and, under all the circum- persons entertained the true notion stances, it was not to be expected that of a spiritual Messiah, this, in conthe serious and inquisitive Jews of this nexion with the Old Testament period could avoid running into conjec- prophecies

, would be sufficient to " It is probable that this imperfection overthrow the Socinian assertion, and inconsistency were still further pro- that those prophecies were moted by a notion which had acquired a understood by the contemporary very general acceptance among the Jews Jews to mean what orthodox Chrisat the time of which we are speaking. As piety decayed, and as the conquests of the tians discover in them. Macedonians and the Romans spread be

(To be continued.) fore the eyes of the Jewish people the glare of military glory and the pomp of dominion, they became more and more secular in their views and expectations.

The Christian Minister ; or, Prac. Their hopes of a Messiah became closely tical Hints for the Conduct of a united with their national pride and their

Young Clergyman. By Elaziowishes for a universal ascendancy. The

τότερος.

London. figurative representations of the Messiah's

:

1829. reign, given by the holy prophets, were eagerly taken in a literal signification, and

A few pages of truly pious and were associated with still grosser ideas of excellent advice; not new-for what

never

is new on this oft-discussed sub- his country, and the world at large. Here ject ?--but not the less deserving to

he devises plans of usefulness, and studies be repeated. We subjoin the au

how he may best promote the glory of God.

And from hence he goes forth with an thor's own summing up, which will unction from the Holy One, to do his sufficiently shew the object and Master's service. execution of his tractate.

“ Again: we view him in the house of “ In the foregoing chapters we briefly gation, he leads the public worship; and

God; where, as the organ of the congreconsidered how a Christian Minister might profitably conduct himself in various situ

as the 'ambassador of Christ' he beations connected with his holy calling. In seeches sinners to be reconciled to God.' our remarks we accompanied him to his

“ In his parish we see him going from closet, and to the house of God; we at

house to house,' rebuking the careless, tended him in his parochial visits, followed warning the profane, comforting the him into the private recesses of the family belicver to hold on his way, and direct

mourners in Sion,' encouraging the weak circle, and observed his deportment towards them that are without. Let us now

ing the attention of all to the · Lamb of take a cursory review of our subject.

God, who taketh away the sin of the “ The Christian Minister's study is his world. John i. 29. We observe in the laboratory, where he assorts and

faithful minister the active promoter of

prepares the materials for his public ministrations.

every useful institution-establishing and There, he searches the records of eternal superintending schools for the instruction truth, investigates and explores the Divine

of youth; inducing habits of industry, somysteries of his holy religion. There, too,

cial order, and piety among his adult pahe examines the secret workings of his rishioners; and endeavouring, by all means,

to advance the interests of the Redeemer's own mind; scrutinizes his actions and motives; compares himself, not with himself,

kingdom. nor with any of his fellow-men, but with

* In his family he exhibits a pattern of the perfect standard of God's holy law ;

godliness, meekness, sobriety, and tempelaments his imperfections ; bewails his rance ; maintaining a thorough consistency transgressions; and, under a deep con

of conduct himself, and gently enforcing sciousness of in-dwelling sin, and much the observance of God's commands in his

domestic establishment. infirmity, prostrates himself before the Mercy Seat, pleads the efficacy of the

“As a pilgrim on his passage through a atoning blood and righteousness of his world that is beset with snares, and whose Saviour Jesus Christ, and supplicates for is necessarily circumspect, and fearful lest

very atmosphere teems with pollution, he grace to help him in every time of need. In this place of solitary retirement he

any stain should attach itself to his chaholds communion with God the Father,

racter; and well does it become him to through the mediation of God the Son.

"watch and pray that he enter not into Here he asks for and receives the blessed temptation. For many there are who wait influence of God the Holy Ghost; prays

for his halting : and the very persons who for Divine illumination ; and obtains the

are foremost in charging him with being witness of the Spirit to the truth, that would be the first to take advantage of

righteous overmuch, are those who • light is sown for the righteous, and gladness for the upright in heart.' Psalm xcvii. any errors into which he might be tempted ll. In this place he wrestles with the

to fall, and the most forward to exult in

his humiliation." Angel of the covenant,' for a blessing upon his labours, his family, the church,

6

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,

&c. &c.

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. minister, Mr. Treschow (see Obituary of

this excellent man, Christ. Observ. Jan. Mrs. SCHIMMELPENNINCK has published 1828), came to breakfast with us at our an English translation of M. Empeytaz's inn; during which time he gave us a very Notice on the Emperor Alexander ; to interesting account of the Emperor Alex which she has added the following corro- ander, who had just visited the settlement borative extract from her own unpublished (Zeist, a very beautiful Moravian settlediary, while on a continental tour in ment, about six miles from Utrecht). He 1814.-" The next morning the venerable had passed through Zeist on his way

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