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not extend to too great a length, I stituted from the beginning of the must proceed to the consideration world" (Fol. p. 75). It is true, in of Dr. Whateley's application of the Deuteronomy the deliverance of doctrine, in his note relating to the Israel from Egypt is stated as imSabbath. The question appears to posing an additional obligation on be, Whether the Lord's day, or that nation to keep the commandChristian Sabbath, is merely a reli- ment: and so it certainly was ; for gious festival, deriving its authority during their bondage, they could solely from the practice of the early not keep the Sabbath ; but, being Christians; or whether it has the brought out thence, God commandsanction of the Divine command- eth them “ to doe the Sabbath day" ment, and is set apart as that day (as Ainsworth translates the passin seven which God blessed and age), which shews also the necessity sanctified, from the time at which for repeating the command; the anhe rested from all the work which tiquity of which is expressed by dehe had done. We must therefore siring them to remember the Sabfirst inquire, whether a sabbatical bath-day, as what had been before observance was required before the appointed; words which are not pretime of Moses, or, whether it was fixed to any other commandment, first instituted after the exodus. Dr. and which were the more necessary, Whateley shews how necessary it is as it is probable the observance of to bis argument to decide this ques- the Sabbath was impossible during tion in the negative, by speaking of their bondage, and was therefore in a supposed command to Adam, be danger of being forgotten. Moses cause "none is recorded;" and he as- therefore, in delivering the Law of serts, it is not said in Genesis that the Ten Commandments (which, it God hallowed the Sabbathi-day at is to be observed, were given apart, that time, but for that reason. In and in a more remarkable manner the second chapter of Genesis it is than the rest of the law)*; or rather, expressly said, however, that “God I should say, God himself, when he rested the seventh day from his wrote these on the two tables of work, and God blessed the seventh stone, desires the Israelites to re. day and sanctified it.” I confess, member this almost-forgotten comtherefore, it appears to me clear mand of God, and the obsolete that the rest of God from the work practice of their fathers. But when of creation, and the act of sanctifi. Moses comes to recapitulate the cation, were performed at one and law in Deuteronomy, he does not the same time; and so they are say, “Remember,” because the respoken of in Exodus : and I am at quisition was then well known, and a loss to discover how the command constantly practised; but he says, to Adam could have been more ex- “Keep the Sabbath-day to sanctify pressly asserted. It is said, that in it." Again, on the two tables of six days God finished the work of stone God directs, that they shall creation, and “rested the seventh not do any work on that day; “for day; wherefore the Lord blessed the in six days the Lord made heaven seventh day, and hallowed it.” His and earth, the sea, and all that in having rested the seventh day, is them is, and rested the seventh not only here stated as the reason day.” In Deuteronomy, Moses dewhy he issued the commandment, sires that their cattle and servants but it is asserted, in the past, not in may rest as well as themselves; and the present time, as an historical “remember that thou wast a serfact, that He blessed and hallowed vant in the land of Egypt, and that it: and Ainsworth, in his commen- * The two tables were written on tary on the word which he trans. Mount Sinai, by the finger of God; the lates therefore, says, “ Hereby it God out of the tabernacle of the congre
scriptural law was spoken to Moses by. appeareth that the Sabbath was in
the Lord God brought thee out obligation arising out of their pethence." In the two tables they culiar circumstances ; and as the must remember the day, and the reason for which the passover was original reason of its sanctification instituted, and the month Abib In Deuteronomy, they are to recol. made the beginning of months, has lect their bondage and their deliver been abrogated by the appearance ance, which induced God to reite- of Him of whom the Paschal Lamb rate the command, and enabled them was a type and shadow; so the to fulfil it. But, supposing it is reason for reckoning a Sabbath granted that the obligation to keep from the beginning of that partiihe Sabbath existed before the exo- cular month, and of that peculiar dus, we must next see whether it is ceremony, is done away also; and necessary to keep it on the Jewish the first Christians being in the Sabbath'; or, whether the observ- same condition as the Israelites ance of one day in seven is sufficient. with respect to a knowledge of the And the first question here is, Whe- original Sabbath, and having their ther there is any reason to suppose, authority as to a change of the day, that the day was changed at the and being also under an obligation deliverance from Egypt. It is quite to commemorate the Lord's day, obvious that the Israelites could and to labour for six days, what not keep the Sabbath-day during had been the first day, according to their state of slavery, if so inclined; Jewish computation, became their and, being polluted with idolatry, Sabbath, or rest, as the Hebrew there is reason to think they were word means: and it may be worth not so disposed : it is probable, while to remark, that the Jews are therefore, that both the day and desired in Exodus to remember the the practice were lost sight of. Sabbath-day, not the seventh day; There is a tradition among them to for possibly it had not been settled, this day, that the work of creation it being only intimated that a seventh was finished at the beginning of portion of time had been sanctified ; their month Tisri, which is the but in Deuteronomy they are desired commencement of their civil year. to keep the Sabbath-day ; and it is If that be correct, the first Sabbath further said, “the seventh day (which must have been on the first day of had then been fixed) is the Sabbath that month ; and if so, it would be of the Lord thy God.” In the twentysomewhat difficult to make it har- third chapter of Leviticus, where monise with a Sabbath on the first the most express injunctions are and the fifteenth day of the month given for computing the time of the Abib or Nisan, which were pro- Lord's feasts, as, " in the fourteenth bably the first Jewish Sabbaths. day of the first month, at even, is The Jews, however, were expressly the Lord's passover ;" the only incommanded to consider the month junction given, with respect to the Abib, or seventh month, the first Sabbath, is, “ Six days shall work month of the year (Exod. xii. 2); be done; but the seventh is the and having probably lost the ori. Sabbath of rest.” Probably it was ginal Sabbath, it was natural for quite as necessary to enjoin six days them to construct their first Sab- work to those just delivered from bath by either counting the first slavery, as the day of rest. No day day of that month their first, or is mentioned, as in the case of the counting seven days from the first day of the passover, from which the passover. But in either case, if we six are to commence ; but the admit an original injunction to keep seventh, at the end of those six, is the Sabbath, their computation was to be the day of rest, which, perfounded not on the immutable rea. haps, is sufficient answer to Dr. son which God assigned for the Whateley's question, Where is the injunction, but on the additional precept to observe as a Sabbath, one day in seven, it matters not to keep any Sabbath. The original which ? and if the mode of com- is plural, and the Jews had many puting the seventh day is not pre- Sabbaths in addition to the weekly scribed, Christians, in changing the Sabbath, some of which were mere Sabbath, do not err with Jeroboam, Levitical observances; the feast of who made Israel to sin, by instituting trumpets was a Sabbath ; the feast a feast unto the Lord, on the day of tabernacles was a Sabbath; and that he had devised in his own the day of atonement was a Sabheart. The command to keep the bath : but our atonement has been Sabbath, is not given in Deutero. achieved once for all, and we are nomy, før it is there spoken of as not, therefore, to be judged for such having been given before ; but it is Sabbaths. But our Lord knew that there enforced upon the Israelites the observance of the weekly Sabby such considerations as were suit. bath, which was made for man at ed to them; and from this, it appears the creation of the world, was neto me, Dr. Whateley is in error, cessary for our spiritual well-being, when he says the Jews keep holy and therefore directed his disciples the seventh day, as the seventh day, to pray that their flight from Jein commemoration of the creation; rusalem, when encompassed with but, in obedience to the command armies, should not be in the winter given at the creation, they keep or on the Sabbath day. If the holy a seventh day, reckoned by à Sabbath is commemorative of God's computation grounded upon their rest from creation, and represents deliverance from Egypt, and chiefly the rest which yet remains to the in commemoration of the latter people of God, let us fear, lest event. Christians keep holy a se. in neglecting it we seem to come venth day, reckoned by a computa- short of so happy a commemoration. tion grounded on our Lord's resur- I hope, in thus venturing to dispute rection and commemoration of that what has been maintained by such event, as well as of the creation, learned authority as Dr. Whateley, and also in obedience to the com- I may shelter myself from the mand delivered to Adam. If there charge to which I should otherwise was no command to Adam, or if be liable, under the antiquity of the that injunction is not now obliga doctrine which I have endeavoured tory, how can we understand that to maintain, and (as Dr. Whateley the Sabbath was made for man, and admits) the high repute of those not man for the Sabbath? Was this authors who have written elaborate holy rest only necessary for the discourses in its defence. I have Jews; and are we in no danger of not seen those discourses; and if forgetting God, if a seventh portion I knew that they existed in any of our time is not dedicated to his popular form, I should not intrude service? It is true, that the Apostle on your publication: I shall be St. Paul says to the Colossians, content if I succeed in drawing the “ Let no man, therefore, judge attention of your learned corresyou in meat or in drink, or in re., pondents to this subject, which spect of an holy day, or of the new appears to me of high importance. moon, or of the Sabbath-days." I
I am, Sir, really think it is as fair to infer that
Your obedient servant, we are neither to eat nor drink, as
X. that this text implies we are not
The expression in Kings is month (not day) which he devised in his own heart : the month is accurately preseribed ; and our fault would only be the same if we kept a Sabbath every eighth day instead of every seventh.
THE LOVE OF THE FATHER THE
OF THE SACRAMENT ALMS.
with his justice, his holiness, and all his other attributes, through the obedience unto death of Christ
his Son, our sacrifice, our redempTothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. tion was effected.
There is nothing in your excelThe pious and judicious writer who lent correspondent's paper which has favoured your readers with the leads me to think he uses the exvery interesting and instructive ac- pression otherwise than inadvertcount of the last days of P. Jolin, in ently: if, however, either he, or your last Number, uses (p. 7) the any other of your readers, use it following expression : “ The im- upon system, í should request the possibility of man's pardon but by favour of their paraphrase of such the free grace of God procured for passages as that above alluded to. us by the death of our Lord Jesus
ALBIGENSIS. Christ.' Now, I respectfully submit to your correspondent, that this statement, though often heard from our pulpits, and found in religious On The Best Mode of DISPOSING books, is not scriptural. The Bible no where speaks of the death of Christ as the procuring cause of the Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. “ free grace ” of God; but, on the contrary, represents the infinite love I should be much obliged if some and “ free grace" of God as the clerical friend, well versed in the originating cause of our redemption. details of parochial duty, could state -Your respected correspondent's the best method of disposing of the statement appears to me to reverse alms collected at the sacrament in the order of our Lord's own decla- a large populous town, where there ration, that it was expressly because are many poor, and also in a small God loved the world that he gave country parish in which I am much his Son to die for it ; and to make interested. I have tried several meit run, that because Christ died for thods, and find all attended with the world, he“ procured" the love some disadvantage. That of disof God for it. The death of Christ tributing at the altar, which the is the procuring cause of our pardon; Bishop of Chester so justly reprobut not of the love and “free grace bates, I have discontinued at the which prompted it. If a person, country parish, though not without from love and free grace to another great murmurings on the part of a pays his debt, and thus causes his long established and sturdy set of liberation from prison, the payment claimants. The clerk and sexton, of the debt was the procuring cause I am legally advised, have, from of his release, but not of the free long usage, a prescriptive claim; at grace which devised and put in ex- all cvents, as they are poor, I do not ecution the scheme of mercy. This withhold their customary
fee,” distinction, though frequently over- though, as one of them is a man of looked through inadvertence, and wicked life (though I fear not legally sometimes denied upon system, is excommunicable), I have tried to very important, because for want persuade him not to receive the of it some persons learn to view the sacrament; but he persists, fearing Almighty Father rather as a severe he should eventually lose his halfinexorable Judge, who willeth the crown if he was not " at his post.” death of a sinner, than as a gracious I have generally confined the relief and merciful Father, whose love to those whom I visit in sickness or prompted him to devise that council poverty (in the town, this is only a of peace by which, in accordance small proportion of those to whom
alms would be welcome ); but I “ Lest any man fail of the grace of fear that this subjects me, in the God.” eyes of those who get nothing, to the This expression, “ the grace of charge of favouritism. I find, also, God," that is, his love, or favour, that the poor greatly over-estimate with the manifestation of that love the sums collected, and are seldom in the renewal and sanctification of satisfied with their share. In the the soul, includes the whole of relicountry parish, I give from my own gion ; its power, its privileges, its purse, besides the collections, which effects, its present influence, and are small, more than their amount its final blessings. Now, among amidst the sick and aged; but pro. those who fail of this grace, the bably with little credit for charity, following classes of persons may be all being supposed to come out of mentioned. the inexhaustible sacrament fund. ). Those who treat it with conI sometimes wish I were rid of it tempt. The Apostle refers for an altogether, or were allowed to add illustration of his views in this pasit to our little parochial “ useful sage, to the instance of Esau, who fund” for assisting to provide Bibles, for one morsel of meat sold his Prayer-books, and tracts, schooling, birth-right. The birth-right in paand other recognized objects. I triarchal times was a very valuable keep an accurate register of all I privilege, derived from the appointreceive and disburse, which I occa- ment of God himself: it included, sionally exbibit at the vestry; partly among the descendants of Abraham, to guide the parish officers in judg: the right of the priesthood in the faing of the cases of the poor, and mily; it made the eldest son, in the also tacitly as a voucher for my house of Isaac, lord over his brethren; own stewardship.
it conveyed to the posterity of the If the above, and other difficul- first-born the blessings promised in ties, are of my own making, I should the covenant, such as the possession be glad to be informed of the fact; of the land of Canaan, and the high but if other clerical friends find the honour of being the ancestor of Him same, I should be much obliged by in whom all nations should be blesstheir counsel.
ed. To slight these privileges was to shew contempt to the Divine goodness. Yet this did Esau. It
is said, he was a profane man, FAMILY SERMONS.- No. CCLXIV. and despised his birth-right. What
profit shall this birth-right do me? Heb. xii. 15.–Looking diligently, And such are all persons who slight
lest any man fail of the grace of the grace of God; who hear of God.
it with indifference, or turn from
it with contempt. Of what great In prosecuting the inquiry suggested advantage can it be to such ? How by this interesting passage, it may
can they experience its power, or be useful to consider,
taste its consolations ? I. The evil to be avoided ;
2. To the same general class II. The importance of taking di- of those who fail of the grace of ligent heed for that purpose ;
God, belong those who habitually III. The means which are suited disobey the precepts of the Gospel. to ensure success.—May the effect Now, this practice is very consistent of our meditations be an increased with an avowed regard for revesense of the value of the grace of lation : it is pursued by many who God, and of the necessity of perse- would deem themselves injured vering watchfulness, that we fail not by the suspicion that they were of it!
guilty of the profaneness of Esau. First, the evil to be avoided : But what is the object of the