ness, or to allay the suspicions, which were fomented by Frenchmen and Greeks in Abyssinia, and by the Arab sheiks whose territory lies between Abyssinia and the sea.

Attack on Italian Troops.-The post of Saati was occupied by bashi-bazouks when the Italians took possession of Massowah. The Abyssinians complained of the occupation, but at length connived at it, because the bashibazouks gave protection to their caravans. In January, 1887, Gen. Gene, the commander of the Italian forces in Africa, made arrangements to forward European troops to Saati. Ras Aloula collected an army without the knowledge of the Italians, and marched upon Keren. Gen. Gene, in his dispatches giving intelligence of the hostile movement, said that he had means more than sufficient to repel any force that the Abyssinians could send against him. In a later dispatch he asked for a re-enforcement of 600 men, in order, if necessary, to make a military demonstration. The Ras sent a messenger to warn the Italian cominander to evacuate the advanced forts, and to limit the occupation to Massowah, threatening to throw into chains Count Salimbeni, the leader of a scientific expedition to Abyssinia, if this were not done. On January 19 the Abyssinians attacked the Italian outposts at Monkullo. In a combat lasting four hours, more than half of their force, which numbered 300, were slain. Of the Italians five were killed, and three made prisoners. One of the prisoners was sent back with a letter saying, that if the Italians wished peace they must remain in Massowah. The commandant replied that peace was not desired on such conditions.

A day or two afterward a force of 1,500 men of all arms was sent out from Monkullo to succor Saati, and prevent that post from falling into the hands of the Abyssinians. Near Dogali the column, which was commanded by Col. Decristoforis, was attacked on January 24 by Ras Aloula's entire force. The Italians could not work their machine-guns, and sent back to Monkullo for more men and mitrailleuses. One of the two companies forming the garrison was dispatched under the command of Capt. Tanturi, but, before the re-enforcements came up, Col. Decristoforis's three companies were utterly routed. The bashi-bazouks fled in the beginning of the engagement. The Italian soldiers formed into a hollow square, and defended themselves as long as their ammunition lasted. The Abyssinians, who were said to number 20,000 men, had many Remington and Martini rifles. After the rout of the Italians, they withdrew to the hills. The Italian losses on the 25th and 26th were 23 officers and 407 men killed, and one officer and 81 soldiers wounded. Ras Aloula is said to have made the attack without the sanction of the Negus. A letter was dispatched, on January 26, by King Johannis, who said: "In the first place you took Wuaa, and now you have come to Saati to erect a fortress. What object have

you? Is not this country mine? Evacuate my country if you have come by orders. Why erect fortresses? You bring what is abundant with you-cannon, muskets, and soldiers." Ras Aloula, after the battle, returned with his troops to Asmara, whence he sent one of his prisoners, Maj. Piano, with a letter, saying: "What has happened was caused by your tricks. Let us now be friends, as in the past. Remain in your own country. All the region between Massowah and here belongs to the Negus."

The Conquest of Harrar.-Simultaneously with Ras Aloula's movement, King Menelek, of Shoa, led his army against Harrar, which had been restored to the hereditary ruler by the English, and was an object of Italian aspirations. The Emir's troops were met near the frontier and put to flight. When Menelek encamped before the city, the inhabitants sent an Italian merchant with an offer of surrender, and prayers for clemency. The Abyssinians thereupon entered the town and took possession without pillage or bloodshed. King Menelek remained in Harrar several weeks, and when he departed left a garrison of 4,000 men. The Negus and his son, with large bodies of soldiers, attempted the conquest of other parts of the Soudan.

The Dispatch of Re-enforcements. In response to Gen. Gene's first request for re-enforcements, 800 men were sent from Italy, with 120 Gatling guns. They landed at Massowal on February 15. The Italians had raised a force of 1,000 bashi-bazouks, and had distributed arms among the inhabitants. With the new troops from Italy the strength of the garrison was about 2,500 Europeans and 1,500 natives. The news of the reverse at Dogali was communicated to the Italian Chamber on February 1, and a credit of 5,000,000 lire was voted for the dispatch of fresh troops. The second detachment of 2,000 soldiers reached Massowah on February 22. The credit was granted only on the understanding that there should be no extension of operations beyond the occupied posts. On March 12 another detachment, numbering 666 officers and men, was sent out.

Negotiations with Ras Aloula.—Maj. Piano returned to the Abyssinian camp to treat especially for the release of Salimbeni and his party. Count Salimbeni himself was allowed to go to Massowah to arrange for the payment of a ran


Ras Aloula sent word, in the latter part of February, that he would not attack the Italians provided they remained at Massowah, Monkullo, and Arkiko. In March, Gen. Gene agreed to the conditions demanded for the release of the Italian prisoners, which were the delivery of 1,000 rifles that had been seized as contraband by the customs authorities, and the surrender of five Arabs belonging to a tribe friendly to the Italians. The Arabs were executed by the Ras, and the tribesmen were incensed against the Italians. All the members of the scientific party were released, with the






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exception of Count Savoiroux, who was de-
tained by Ras Aloula to act as his physician.
The Change of Commanders.-The Italian Gov-
ernment ordered Gen. Gene to establish an
effective blockade, with the object of prevent-
ing the importation of arms into Abyssinia.
Count Robilant sent a dispatch severely cen-
suring the commandant for purchasing the
freedom of the prisoners by the surrender of
arms and fugitives, and soon afterward sent
Gen. Saletta, the first commander of the Ital-
ian troops in East Africa, to relieve him of
his post. An Abyssinian bishop, the head of
the Order of Jerusalem, while returning from
a pilgrimage to the holy city, was detained by
Gen. Gene as a hostage for the safety of Maj.
Savoiroix. Letters from the Negus and his
general to the French consul, M. Saumagne,
proved that he had carried on a hostile in-
trigue, though he had been formally instruct-
ed by his Government to facilitate their settle-
ment at Massowah. In consequence of this Virginia
revelation, he was removed from his post.
Gen. Saletta arrived at Massowah in the middle
of April, and took over the command on April
23. He notified the merchants in Massowah
to recall all their agents in Abyssinia, as he
intended to declare a blockade by sea and land.
On May 2 he proclaimed martial law, and on
the following day announced the blockade of
the coast from the Bay of Hamfila on the
south to the point opposite the Difnen Islands
on the north. A prize court was instituted
at Massowah to deal with vessels breaking the
blockade. The Negus appointed Ras Aloula
governor-general of the Taccaze country as far
as the Red Sea, excepting the province of Ma-
kalle. Rifles of an improved pattern were dis-
tributed among the soldiers of the Ras, and
all commerce with the Italians was prohibited
on pain of death. On July 11 the Italians lost
about 600,000 francs' worth of ainmunition by
the explosion of their powder-magazine, which
was supposed to have been set on fire by Abys-
sinians to avenge one of their countrymen who
was shot as a spy. There were 10 persons
killed and 75 wounded by the explosion.

Offer of Mediation.-On July 12 the British Government communicated its readiness to act as mediator between Italy and Abyssinia, and the Italian Government accepted the principle of British mediation in its answer, given before the end of the month. No movement was undertaken by either side during the summer; but in August the Italian Government chartered steamers for the dispatch, if necessary, of 10,000 troops in the autumn. The Mohammedans on the coast were generally willing to join the Italians against the Abyssinians, and treaties were made by Gen. Saletta with several Arab tribes.

ADVENTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY. The following is a summary of the statistics of the SeventhDay Adventist denomination, by Conferences, as given in the "Seventh-Day Adventist YearBook" for 1887:


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Besides the ministers, 166 licentiates were returned. The whole amount of Conference funds was $146,936. The reports show increase from the previous year of 27 ministers, 15 licentiates, 57 churches, 2,564 members, and $24,295 in Conference funds.

The International Tract and Missionary Society reported 12,512 members, 247 cities entered by Bible workers and colporteurs, $59,166 received on account of the tract and missionary fund, $27,551 received on account of periodicals, $6,315 on account of the tract and missionary reserve fund, $28,579 pledged and $20,965 paid for home work, $67,351 pledged and $18,981 paid to other enterprises, and an excess of $62,356 of resources over liabilities. City missions in 36 cities and towns employed 102 "experienced workers." The General Sabbath-School Association, at its anniversary meeting, adopted a form of constitution for State Associations. The American Health and Temperance Association had on its rolls the names of nearly 15,000 members. The Central Seventh-Day Advent Publishing Association returned a net gain from business during the year of $11,849, and a present valuation of $166,520. Its accounts were balanced at $343,583. The Pacific Seventh-Day Advent Publishing Association returned a capital of $49,692, and total assets valued at $175,741. The Seventh-Day Adventist Educational Society reported the present value of its property and resources as $56,156. About 175 students of the college were attending Biblical lectures. Healdsburg College returned an excess $15,839 of assets over liabilities. The net resources of the Health Reform Institute were returned at $178,014. The average number of


patients had exceeded 200. A "Rural Health Retreat" was also sustained at St. Helena, Cal. A the meeting of the European Missionary Council, held in Great Grimsby, England, in September and October, 1886, reports were made of the condition of the denominational work in the Scandinavian countries, in all three of which were 22 churches, 602 members, 809 Sabbath-keepers, 288 Sabbath-school members, 9 ministers, and 16 colporteurs; and $1,223 had been realized from tithes and donations. Tent-work had been carried on in England-not so successfully as in the previous year-and in France and Italy.

General Conference.-The twenty-fifth General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists met at Battle Creek, Mich., Nov. 18, 1886. Elder George I. Butler presided, and presented at the opening session, reports on the work of the denomination in the United States and foreign countries. Besides missions in various parts of the United States, special accounts were given of missions in Australia, South Africa, England, Scandinavia, and other parts of Europe. Attention was invited to the Maoris of New Zealand as a suitable people among whom to establish a mission, and to the expediency of publishing a paper in their language. The reports were accepted by the Conference as indicating a more rapid spread of "The Third Angel's Message" than had ever been known before, and, with the "persecutions to which the Seventh-Day people were subjected," of the approaching culmination of the Adventists' work. The hearty Christian sympathy of the Conference was tendered to the brethren who were suffering persecution, and they were urged, with "others upon whom the same things may come, to be in nothing terrified by the adversaries." It was resolved to begin labor among the Hollanders in the United States, and the publication of a paper in the Dutch language was advised. The publication of a book of plans for buildings for church societies was directed. Resolutions were adopted recommending to persons in charge of city missions, to introduce foreign departments into their work; that all persons connecting themselves with missions, "should, before going, bring their wearing apparel into harmony with the teachings of the Bible, and the testimonies on the subject"; that at each camp-meeting at least one session should be devoted to the subject of education, and special effort should be made to induce youths to attend the denominational schools; directing the establishment of a Labor Bureau at Battle Creek; advising the opening of missions in South Africa, South America, and British Honduras, and calling for $100,000 during the year, in addition to pledges already made, for missionary operations; recommending the institution, at the denominational schools and academies, of special courses for young ministers and persons engaged in evangelistic labors; especially

insisting upon the importance of the health and temperance branches of the denominational work; relating to the appointment of reporters of the proceedings of camp-meetings, and other meetings, with reference to securing the critical correctness of translations of denominational writings into foreign languages; declaring the rebaptism of persons who have been "properly baptized" before "embracing the message," not to be necessary; and approving a publication called the "Chart of the Week," as "an incontrovertible testimony to the unbroken continuity of the creation week, an unanswerable argument to the Sunday theory, and a positive proof of the perpetuity of the Seventh-Day Sabbath, showing, that out of more than one hundred and fifty languages and dialects, the large majority recognize Saturday as the Sabbath."

AFGHANISTAN, a monarchy in Central Asia. The ruler, called the Ameer, is Abdurrahman Khan, who was placed on the throne by the English after their conquest of the country in 1879. He receives a regular subsidy of about $50,000 a month from the Indian treasury, and is under a treaty engagement to follow the advice of the Viceroy in his relations with foreign powers, while the British Government is under obligation to give him military assistance in case of an unprovoked aggression on his territory.

The Ghilzai Revolt.-Abdurrahman has made use of the money and arms given him by the English in an endeavor to establish a firm authority over his immediate subjects, the turbulent and independent Afghan tribes. The Ameer, a man of stern and resolute disposition, was guided in his policy by the conviction that Afghanistan would lose its national existence in the conflict between Russia and England unless the tribes were united and controlled by a single autocratic will. The tribes have never been subservient to a central authority, and are unwilling to pay taxes, or to recognize any master superior to their own chiefs. The Ameer imposed a tax of ten rupees on every marriage of a daughter and every son born, and five rupees on every widow married, every girl born, and every man migrating to India for employment. The attempt to exact imposts stirred a section of the Ghilzais-the strongest and most independent of the Afghan tribes-into rebellion. Some of the southern Ghilzais expelled the Ameer's officers, and rose in arms in the autumn of 1886. The Afghan commander-in-chief, Gholam Hyder Charkhi, marched against the insurgents, and was successful to the extent of securing the safety of the road between Cabul and Candahar. Ďuring the winter, military operations could not be carried on; but in the spring of 1887, the revolt broke out afresh, and extended to most of the Ghilzai tribes south of Ghuzni.

The Ameer, who already possessed a good disciplined army, well armed and drilled, provided with artillery, and commanded by faith

ful lieutenants, whose fortunes were bound up in his own, prepared in the early spring for a vigorous campaign against the insurgents, and for the defense of his frontier against any sudden movement of Russia. He raised new regiments, mostly among the Duranis of the Candahar province, called on all his subjects over eighteen years of age to enlist in the army, and issued a manifesto, which was at first reported to contain the proclamation of a Jehad, or holy war, but which was really a statement of the dangers arising to Afghanistan from the rivalries of European powers, and a patriotic and religious appeal for union and loyal submission in face of the national peril.

The disturbances were begun again near the close of March by the Hotak section of the Ghilzais, holding the country about Khelat-iGhilzai, who seized some officers sent from Candahar to levy fines, and killed the governor of Maraf who was leading a force against them. Sikundar Khan marched from Candahar with a large force for the purpose of occupying the hilly district of Attaghar, where the defiance to the Ameer's authority occurred. It is situated about one hundred miles east of Candahar, and the same distance north of Quetta. The Ghilzais in the neighborhood of Ghuzni also rose in great force about the 1st of April, and held the road between Cabul and Candahar. Gholam Hyder Orakzai moved out from Ghuzni against these insurgents, who were assembled at Mukur, about a third of the distance between Ghuzni and Candahar. The Andak and Tarak tribes fell upon Gholam Hyder Khan, who was in pursuit of a rebel chief, and killed him and 200 horsemen. To avenge his death, Purwana Khan, who, though not a soldier by profession, was held to be the ablest of the Ameer's generals, was sent with 3,000 men, and was defeated at Nani, a short distance to the south of Ghuzni. The force led by Gholam Hyder Orakzai had an encounter with the rebels, who were driven back upon the hills, leaving the road to Candahar free again; but the general was afraid to pursue, and, fearing that they would return to the attack, intrenched himself in the plain. Sikundar Khan was attacked by the Hotaks on April 12, and compelled to retire from the Ghilzai district, and go into intrenchments near Maruf, so as to maintain his communications with Candahar through the Durani country. The Ameer's troops were beaten at first, and some of them fled to Khelat-i-Ghilzai; but the rest finally made a stand, forming a breast work of their camels. All the sections of the Ghilzai tribe south of Shutargardan Pass joined in the rebellion, as well as the Jaowri Hazaras. The Hotaks and Andaris took the lead, but the movement spread to the Tarakhis and the Tokhis. Troops were withdrawn from the Jelalabad district to be sent against the southern insurgents, and presently the Shinwarris, who had been uneasy for some time, and whom the Ameer's commander-in-chief was trying to

pacify, broke into open revolt when the Ameer's officials attempted to enforce the payment of taxes. Abdurrahman, who is afflicted with an organic disease, fell ill about this time. Secret intelligence passed between the insurgents and various pretenders to the throne, especially Ayub Khan, who was interned in Persia. About the end of April a defeat was inflicted on the royal troops by the Shinwarris near Jelalabad. Two other attacks were made, and some damage inflicted by the rebels on the forces in the south. On the 15th of May Gholam Hyder Orakzai effected a junction with Sikundar Khan, and their combined forces, estimated at 4,500 infantry and cavalry, with 8 guns, encamped at Karez-i-Ahu, at some distance from Attaghar, where they were confronted by 4,000 Ghilzais. The opposing forces remained for several weeks in their respective camps. The Ameer's troops made raids through the Hotak country, burning villages, and even destroying the fruit and almond orchards, which are the main source of wealth of the inhabitants. Finally, Gholam Hyder Orakzai moved northward to prevent a junction between the Tarakhis, who were gathering in large numbers, and the Hotaks. When he had gone, the rebels plundered the Durani villages of Maruf. Gholam Hyder went first to Shinkhai to reopen communications with Ghuzni, and on June 11 moved eastward to disperse the gatherings of Tarakhis, Tokhis, and Nasiris in the plain north of Lake Abiistada. On the 13th he met them at a fortified position called Katalkhan, and was repelled Three days later he marched against a force of Tarakhis and Nasiris, and defeated them, killing 300. In June a Ghilzai chief named Tamar Shah, who was second in command, led a mutiny in the garrison of Herat. A regiment of Ghilzais attempted to kill the governor and seize the town. The mutiny of other troops was arranged, but the governor attacked the regiment that took the lead, and drove them from the town, after the mutineers had provided themselves with breech-loading rifles and cartridges from the arsenal. A detachment was sent from Candahar to intercept them, but they succeeded in joining the main body of the rebels at Nawai Tarakhi. Their leader fled toward Persia, but was captured and sent to Cabul. There were many encounters between the Ameer's forces and the rebels. The latter ventured several times to attack the troops on the plains, but lost heavily. The Ameer had proclaimed them outlaws, and the heads of the slain were sent by the hundred to Cabul. The troops dared not attack them in the hills, and were kept busy marching and countermarching to defend the points that were successively threatened. Gholam Hyder attempted to cut off the Andari mutineers when they moved southward from Nawabi-Tarakhi to join the Hotaks and Nasiris at Attaghar. A combat took place on July 25 at the pass of Kotal-i-Ab, by which the

road from Khelat-i-Ghilzai crosses the Sura mountains. The rebels had fortified the pass, and were there in considerable force, but were outnumbered and gave way before re-enforcements arrived, after inflicting heavy losses on the royal troops. There was another fight on August 3, in which the Ameer's general was worsted and forced to retire to Khelat. A large part of Abdurrahman's army was composed of Andari Ghilzais, and military discipline was not strong enough to overcome the spirit of the clan. No Ghilzai troops were sent against the rebels. After the mutiny of the Andari regiment, the other Cabuli troops in Herat were sent out of the town. The ringleaders of the mutiny were captured and sent to Cabul, but the Ameer did not dare punish them, for fear of provoking a general mutiny of their fellow-tribesmen, with the exception of Taimar Shah and two other officers, who were executed for holding treasonable correspondence with Ayub Khan. The Herat garrison was recruited from the neighboring peoples, who can not be relied on for soldierly qualities, nor for loyalty to the Ameer of Cabul. The attempt of the Ameer to awaken a religious spirit in the northern Afghan country with the help of the mollahs was a failure, for his despotic rule was thoroughly unpopular, and the friends of the pretenders drew an effective contrast between his and Shere Ali's reign. The Duranis of the Candahar province had thus far escaped the Ameer's exactions, and were still faithful; yet the attempt to raise fresh regiments among them was not successful, because they are averse to a military life. The bulk of the Ameer's army remained in the north, where, notwithstanding the re-enforcements sent to the southern garrisons, Gholam Hyder Khan had about 20,000 regular troops, while the forces under Hyder Orakzai and Sikundar Khan numbered about 7,000 men, and the garrisons of Ghuzni and Candahar, 5,000. The Shinwarris, led by the Sirdar Nur Mohammed Khan, who, after first gaining possession of the Khost district, joined them with a large body of recruits, held their own country against the forces sent against them from Jelalabad by Hyder Gholam Khan. The British Strategic Railways.—The rails of the Sibi and Quetta sections of the Sind-Pishin Railroad via the Harnai route were joined on March 14, 1887. The alternative Bolan road was still far from complete. The line over the Harnai Pass is a superior engineering work, comparable, except in the point of length of tunnel, with any of the mountain railroads of Europe. The highest point is 7,000 feet above the sea. By means of the Quetta Railroad the Indian Government is enabled to place all the supplies for an army of 100,000 men within one hundred miles of Candahar. Surveys have been made for a military road from Dera Ghazi Khan through the Bori valley to Pishir. A short line of railroad from Peshawur to Jamrud on the Afghan frontier, at the entrance of

the Kaiber Pass, is in progress. Two branches of the Quetta line extend across the Pishin valley to Gulistan and Kiela Abdula, at the foot respectively of the Gwajja and Khojak Passes in the Khojah Amran range. The expenditure on the Harnai and Bolan lines, from 1885 to the close of the financial year 1886-'87, was about $19,000,000. Surveys for the extension of the line beyond the Khojah Amran mountains have been made. The route over the Khojak Pass is the more direct one, while the Gwajja Pass presents fewer engineering difficulties. To extend the road into the country of the Afghans, the British must be prepared to carry out a military occupation, which they are not likely to undertake until a crisis in Afghan affairs renders it necessary. The Duranis attacked their stations and survey parties several times in the early part of 1887. The Ameer appointed khans in that district who would be favorable to the English, but he has no power to facilitate the entrance of their railroad into Afghanistan, and only incurs the contempt of the Afghans by his subservience. On January 8 the Duranis, with the concurrence of the Governor of Candahar, attacked the post of Kiela Abdula, with the intention of killing the British political officer and the engineer of the railroad. They did not find those officers, but destroyed the telegraph, and killed the local khan and one hundred railroad laborers. When work was begun on the extension of the road from Gulistan to Chaman Chauki, the head of the Khojak Pass, every one from Quetta was required by the Governor of Candahar to find security for his future conduct.

The Trans-Caspian Railway.-The strategic railroad from the Caspian Sea across the Turkomanian desert, which was begun in 1880, was completed as far as the Oxus in the spring of 1887. It is to be continued thence to Samarcand, a total distance of 1,335 versts from the coast. The island of Usun Ada, twelve miles to the west of Mikhailovsk, was selected as the starting-point, neither Krasnovodsk nor Mikhailovsk being suitable on account of the steep hills surrounding the one and the shallow harbor of the other. Usun Ada harbor has twelve feet of water. It is eighteen to twenty hours by steamboat from Baku. The foundation for portions of the road running across the shifting sands between the coast and Kizil Arvat, about two hundred versts, was made by watering the sand with sea-water, and laying over it clay dug from the steppes. There were as many as 5,000 Russians and 20,000 Asiatics employed on the work at one time. The naphthasprings, which are as numerous and productive on the eastern shore of the Caspian as in the Baku district, supply an abundance of astatki for heating the locomotives. A line of rails runs from the station of Bala Ishem to the petroleum-springs, from which the fuel is brought, only thirty-five versts away. There are five wells opened, yielding 5,000 poods of naphtha daily. Between the oases of Akhal and Merv

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