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form part of the defensive system, and the English fleet, in conjunction with the Italian navy, will be able to guarantee the coasts and the ports of Italy against a French descent.

Colonies. There have been taken recently under the protectorate of the Imperial Government the following territories in Africa: (1) The territory of Togo on the Slave Coast, with the districts of Porto Seguro and Little Popo; (2) the territory of Cameroon, bounded on the north by the right bank of the Rio del Rey and on the south by the Campo river; (3) the territory on the west coast of South Africa, bounded by the left bank of the Counene river on the north, and on the south the Orange river, with the exception of Whale Bay, and extending to territories in the interior acquired by treaty; (4) the territories of the negro chiefs of Usagara, Nguru, Use guha, and Ukami, described in the patent of protection issued on February 27, 1885; (5) the territory of Vitou.

On March 28, 1887, the territory of Victoria, which was under the protectorate of Great Britain, was formally handed over to the German authorities to be thenceforth incorporated in the colony of Cameroon, in accordance with an agreement between the two governments.

In the Pacific ocean the protection of the Emperor has been extended over the Marshall Isles, which have an area of 110 square kilometres and 10,000 inhabitants, and over the regions acquired by the Company of New Guinea. The latter comprise King William's Land, situated on the northeast coast of New Guinea, with an area of 179,250 square kilometres, and 109,000 inhabitants; the Bismarck Archipelago, with 52,200 square kilometres of land surface, and 188,000 inhabitants; and the portion of the Solomon Islands that is situated north of the line of demarkation agreed on between Great Britain and Germany on April 6, 1886, having an area of 22,000 square kilometres, and about 80,000 inhabitants.

GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. However objectionable secret societies may be on general principles, the fact of their wide-spread existence is an indisputable proof of their popularity. They are found in all nations and under all conditions of civilization and barbarism, and, after an ineffectual struggle to suppress them, even the most conservative of our universities and colleges have been forced to make the best of them and recognize their influence as one of the elements of social life that must be accepted, and, if possible, converted to good and useful ends. No combination of persons can exist, indeed, without some interior affairs of its own which it is not policy to give to the world at large.

It is not strange, therefore, that when the idea of a society of veteran soldiers was first conceived it should have been deemed wise to organize it with a system of signs, grips, and passwords, which may seem very unnecessary

to outsiders, but have their uses in strengthening the bond that unites its membership.

Springfield, Illinois, was the birthplace of the Grand Army of the Republic, better known by its initials as the G. A. R. During the winter of 1865-'66, a considerable number of soldiers who had served in the armies of the United States were gathered in the vicinity of Springfield, and Dr. B. F. Stephenson, late surgeon of the Fourteenth Illinois Infantry, was so prominent in perfecting the organization that to him belongs the credit of having founded the now powerful, prosperous, and well-organized association that numbers its members by the hundred thousand.

After much discussion among the original projectors, it was decided that the element of secrecy was best adapted to further the objects of the order, and at the first regular meeting a ritual was adopted, with prescribed oaths and ceremonies of initiation, and the association was launched with a purpose that has been most successfully carried out.

The first post was formed in Decatur, Illinois, on the night of April 6, 1866, and the entire staff of compositors of the Decatur "Tribune " being, as it happened, eligible to membership, was mustered in. This enabled the young fraternity to have its printing done with closed doors, and four hundred copies of the ritual were soon printed and bound for distribution. The town was placarded with notices like the following: "G. A. R., Post No. 1, Decatur, April 6, 1866," and in a short time a large proportion of the veterans in the neighborhood had applied for membership. The objects of the order, as publicly announced, were as follow:

First: To preserve and strengthen those kind and fraternal feelings which bind together the soldiers, sailors, and marines who united to suppress the late rebellion, and to perpetuate the history and memory of the dead.

Second: To assist such former comrades-inarms as need help and protection, and to extend needful aid to the widows and orphans of those who have fallen.

Third: To maintain true allegiance to the United States of America, based upon a paramount respect for and fidelity to the national Constitution and laws; to discountenance whatever tends to weaken loyalty, incites to insurrection, treason, and rebellion, or in any manner impairs the efficiency or permanency of our free institutions; and to encourage the spread of universal liberty, equal rights, and justice to all men.

The organization of Post No. 1, at Springfield, was soon followed by that of Post No. 2 at the same place, and Dr. Stephenson was recognized as Provisional Commander-in-Chief. In the mean time, other associations having the same general end in view, seeing the advantage of united action, dissolved their organizations, and were duly received into the Grand Army of the Republic.

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