He has enjoyed many advantages favorable to the accomplishment of his design,-he has been an attentive observer of passing events, and not unfrequently an actor in the political scenes that have occurred in a period of more than half a century commencing with the controversy between the states (then colonies) and the mother country,—which eventuated in their independence, and, finally, in the establishment of the present government on the true principles of freedom-a period agitated and occupied with revolutions and revolutionary movements, which have extended with various effects to all the civilized nations of Europe and the whole of the American continent, and which have produced a more thorough investigation, and discussion of the social and individual rights of man and the nature and principles of free governments than is to be found in any other age, indeed, than all preceding ages within the reach of history. With what success the work has been executed must be left to the decision of the public. Such a work adapted to the civil and political institutions of the country has been hitherto, a desideratum, which it was the Author's ambition to supply. If, however, he has failed in this, it will be a sufficient consolation, should what he has attempted, excite some writer of more leisure and of a higher order of talents to accomplish the task, although, now at the advanced age of fourscore he can hardly expect personally to enjoy that consolation.

The Author has throughout the whole endeavored at the investigation of natural principles, and to follow truth wherever it led ;-he has several times been induced to differ from the opinions of some writers of the first talents and reputation. Although he has examined these opinions with the freedom of philosophical discussion, it has been his constant aim to treat the writers with that decent respect which they merit from every lover of science.

As to the manner and style of the work, if it should be thought that they savor of former times, the apology is, that the author himself, more properly belongs to an age that is now past.

Tinmouth, Vermont, July 10, 1833.

Number 1.- Articles of confederation,
Number 2.—Mr. Madison to Mr. Ingersoll,
Number 3.-Mr. Madison to Mr. Cabell,
Number 4.—Mr. Madison to Mr. Cabell,
Number 5.-Mr. Madison to Mr. E. Everett,



The Publisher regrets that the errors of the press havo been so numerous

as they appear to be by the following list. He trusts, however, that it will

be a sufficient excuse to the candid reader, that the greater part of the work

was printed from manuscript at such a distance from the author, as to pre-

vent an inspection of the proof-sheets by him. To the same cause, as well

as to imperfections in the manuscript, some slight errors are owing, all of

which may not be noted below. The work having been sent to the publish-

er at different times, and in separate portions, one parcel was accidentally

mislaid, and was not observed to be wanting, until it had been passed by in

the order of printing. It was afterwards inserted in its place, after the 144th

page, the letter (a) being annexed to the number of the pages. No incon-

venience can result from this slight irregularity; but it has the effect of

making the contents of the work appear less than they are in fact, by 44


Line from for



Page. Line from


12 bottom, resulting, result, 103 13 bottom before speech dele "the,'

18 & 19





3 do after progress, insert in the knowledge 114

8 bottom,


44 19 top, after furnish insert "us,'



17 do


motive, 143



59 18 do

getting, keeping,



7 do after given insert 'up,'

12 bottom, after and, insert 'if,'

do 8 do


goods, 174

3 do


relate, 184


74 16 do alternately, ultimately, 189

Il bottom,

agreements, arguments,

9 do before custom insert 'a,'

decreeing, directing,

18 bottom,

Menort, Mentor,

representation, perception,



Il bottom, sentence, sanction,

18 bottom, divisions, decisions, 217 on, read an, institutions, institution,

100 8 top, after rated dele 'to,'

16 bottom,


19 bottom,


learning, 243 top l. before representatives insert 'Every


[blocks in formation]

priest, priests, law passed by the senate and house of

12 top,

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